What is Money?
Money, some call it Doe, some call it bucks, others may refers to it as dollars, in other places, the pound and in others, the euro; whether one calls it peso, francs, mark, yen, yuan, shekel or rupees, money has the same function in the world we live in. Money is a medium of exchange for either goods or services in the form of a transaction. Money is in fact a placeholder for said product or service; for money, whether paper or gold, is easier to carry than a chicken or cow and the likelihood of your barber needing a shoe shine every time you get a haircut is very low. Since this is a reality, money was formed. The origins of money will be discuss more later on, for now, let's discuss what the core functions of money is.
Why would a man trust-in a placeholder for actual physical goods and services? How can he trust such an abstract concept of a piece of paper or gold, something that cannot used outside of exchanging for actual goods and services, as opposed to having actual goods or services he can use other than for exchange; such as chickens which he can eat; unlike money? The answer comes from the very nature of man himself. Man is a social & tribal species which relies on the good faith of other humans in order to survive and advance in life. One man alone up against a stronger animal, such as a woolly mammoth or lion; without weapons, is very weak and highly unlikely to win a duel with such creatures. However, when man is with other men, they are the ultimate life forms, and the superior animals in the world. This instinct in men to work together for a common goal of survival is the pivotal reason why money can work in humanity. The natural trust humans tend to have in the good faith of one another, makes money trustworthy as a placeholder for actual goods or services that would have an alternative function than that of exchange.
Another factor in man that makes money work, is intelligence. Trust in a pack alone, does not sufficiently lead an animal of that nature to trust in currency such as money. This is why after millions of years of evolution, wolves, sheep, goats, cattle and elephants do not have a form of money like humanity does. While yes, the monkey who scratches another monkey's back, will inevitably get his own back scratch by the same monkey, this is still a service and not a form of exchange alone that placeholds another good or service. Even when a mother elephant takes care of her infant elephant, this is still not considered money; for the mother elephant expects the baby elephants to grow up and have children of his/her own in order to continue the genes of her family of elephants into the future. The carrying on of the genetic line of her family, is the service the baby elephant will provide to the mother in exchange for that mother taking care of him/her as a youngling. Whether the elephants are self-aware of this fact, is beside the point, a, exchange of services outside of just transactional purposes has occurred. The fact that humans can tell that a piece of paper is worth a certain amount of chicken eggs that have more than just transactional value, is due to both self-awareness and intelligence. While money has not always been a part of humanity, it is a distinct thing that separates humans from other animals in the world.
The Origins of Money
Before money, humans use to barter for goods and services. For example one cow may have been worth 4 chickens, a pot could have been traded for a goat, or shoemaker could have fixed a man's shoes in exchange for a dozen eggs. The possibilities were endless. The problem with this system however, is it inefficiency and inconvenience. A man cannot carry a cow or 4 chickens or a goat everywhere he needs to go for trade without great effort. Commerce was slow with barter system and therefore economic growth was just as time-consuming. However, a breakthrough occurred around 3000 B.C. the first form of commodity money was created. This currency was known as The Shekel, and it was used in Mesopotamia. The Shekel was measured using the weight of barley, 180 liters of barley for one shekel, barley was the form of currency in Mesopotamia before the invention of the shekel. The Shekel is a historical coin that is still used today in the nation of Israel. Without The Shekel revolutionizes trade, would we even be in the position of economic growth that we are in today? Imagine trying to start an industrial revolution without coin or paper currency. Other Ancient Civilizations in The Bronze Age would also form their own form of commodity currency such as India was their Cowrie Shells or China with their Ban Liang.
Money Through the years
Money has evolved from the simple shekel and sea shell throughout the years. Other currencies that developed are The Roman Coin, The Greek Coin, The Lydian Stater, The Persian Daric, and Chinese Knife Money. Throughout the years, all of these currencies developed into more efficient currencies like paper currencies such as the dollar and now digital money.
Today, we still use commodity currency like: The Dollar, The Pound, The Euro, Yen, Peso, Yuan, Rupee, The Shekel, Francs, Marks, Roubles and The Real, but we as human are moving away from using physical paper and coin, and moving toward digital forms of these currencies and new currencies such as Bitcoin. The more our civilizations become online entities, the more we exchange goods and services using the web and in turn use digital forms of currency. Some economists believe that one day all currency trades will be done online and that we all will have one unifying form of currency. Now is this a good or bad thing? Only the future can tell us, till then, keep trading.
Absolute Advantage: Occurs when a country uses the same level of resources to produce more goods than another country.
Accounting: The recording analysis and reporting of financial transactions of a business.
Accounts Payable: Money owed by a company for goods and services purchased on credit from vendors.
Accounts Receivable: Money owed by customers for goods or services purchased on an open account.
Accrued Interest: Interest that has accumulated and is added to a loan.
Adjustable Rate Mortgage (ARM): A Mortgage in which the interest rate is adjusted periodically based on a preselected index.
Advertising: Placement of announcements and persuasive messages(in time or space) communicated through media or nonmedia forms; used to inform or persuade members of a target market or audience about a good, service, organization or idea.
Advertising Campaign: Series of coordinated advertising vehicles in various media, scheduled for a certain time period, and related by verbal and/or visual themes or common objectives.
Advertising Strategy: An overview of the competitive frame, target market and message to be used in an advertising campaign.
Affiliate Marketing: An on-line marketing strategy that shares revenue between on-line advertisers/merchants and on-line publishers/salespeople; compensation is usually based on performance (sales, clicks, registrations).
Agents: Intermediaries who negotiate the purchase or sales of goods for the clients, but who do not take title to the goods.
Amortization: Payment of a debt that allows the borrower to reduce debt through regular payments over a certain period of time.
Annual Percentage Rate (APR): An interest rate that reflects the cost of a loan as a yearly rate.
Appreciate: To Increase in value or price.
Asset: Everything owned that has value, including tangible items like cash, accounts receivable, inventory, land, buildings and equipment.
Audit: An examination of verification of a business's accounting records and procedures by a trained accountant or CPA (certified public accountant).
Awareness: First Stage in the process of learning about a new good or service that the costumer has gotten information about but not yet formed an opinion on.
Back Order: An item not currently in stock but to be sold nor delivered when it becomes available.
Balance Of Trade: The difference between an country's total imports and exports.
Balance Sheet: A summary of a company's financial condition at a specific period of time; indicates the company's assets, liabilities and net worth.
Bankruptcy: A Legal Process in which a company (or person) owes more than its assets and is relieved from payment of debts by transferring those assets to a trustee.
Banner Ad: A graphical Internet advertising tool; users click on the graphic to be directed to another website.
Behavioral Analysis: An evaluation method used to monitor sales force performance; involves evaluating the behavior of salespeople and sales performance.
Benchmark: Something that serves as the standard to which all other like items can be measured or compared.
Beneficiary: A person who is designated to receive benefits, profits or advantages.
Beta: A measure of an asset's risk in relation to the market.
Bill Of Lading: A contract between shipper and carrier, detailing what is being shipped, how it is being shipped, and terms of delivery.
Bill Of Materials: Document used by a company to authorize a set of purchases to be made or to be taken from inventory to fulfill an order.
Blended Payment: A loan payment, consisting of principal and interest, that is the same amount every month.
Blog: An Internet communication that combines a diary, column and directory; short articles on various subjects with links to other resources; updated often.
Blue-Chip Stocks: Common stock of well-known companies with a history of growth and dividend payments.
Board Of Directors: Individuals elected by shareholders; responsible for managing the president and high-level managers.
Body Copy: The section of a print ad that contains text and more detailed information than the headlines and subheads.
Bond: A government- or corporation-issued certificate of debt guaranteeing payment of the original investment plus interest by a certain future date.
Bond Mutual Fund: Investment company that invests it shareholders' monies in bonds.
Book Value: Total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities; can be more or less than market value.
Bottom Line: An accounting term for the net profit or loss.
Brand: A mark, symbol, word or combination that separates one company's product from another's.
Brand Awareness: Having knowledge that a brand exits; considered first step in the sales process.
Brand Category: Generic classification of goods or services; like goods or services in the same brand category.
Brand Extension: Addition of a new product to an already established line of products under the same brand name; new product benefits from the older products' established reputation.
Brand Loyalty: Loyalty a customer has to a specific brand over a period of time.
Branding: A method of identifying products and differentiating them from competing products.
Break-Even Point: The level of sales where revenue equals total costs; can also be expressed in terms of units of product.
Budget Deficit: Point at which spending exceeds revenues.
Business: The activity of making, buying, selling, or supplying goods or services for currency.
Business Cycle: Period of time composed of a business upswing or expansion, peak, downturn, trough and recovery.
Business Plan: A document fully describing and analyzing a particular business; provides complete, detailed information about short- and long-term plans.
Bylaws: A set of regulations used by an organization to conduct its business.
Call Feature: A feature that gives the right to the issuer to repurchase a bond before maturity.
Call To Action: Statement normally found at the end of a commercial message that encourages the consumer to act.
Cannibalization: Reduction in the sales volume, sales revenue or market share of one product as a result of the introduction of a new product by the same producer.
Capital: Wealth in the form of currency or other assets owned by a person or organization or available or contributed for a particular purpose such as starting a company or investing.
Capital Budget: Allocated amount of funds to be used on purchasing assets such as machinery, building, equipment, computers, etc., that are needed for longer than one year.
Capital Gain: Profit from the sale of an investment; the price received from the sale of an investment minus the price paid.
Capitalism: Private ownership of the means of production.
Carrying Cost: Expense of keeping inventory on hand.
Cash: Paper currency used for transactions in sales.
Cash Cow: Good or service that generates a steady and predictable income.
Cash Flow Statement: Financial statement that shows when cash flows are received and disbursed by a business.
Category Killer: A destination store, normally large, that concentrates on one category, enabling it to carry a broad assortment and deep selection at a low price.
Certificate Of Deposit (CD): A document written by a financial institution that show a deposit with the issuer's promise to return the deposit plus earnings at a certain interest rate within a period of time.
Channel Of Distribution: Route a product follows to link producer to end customer.
Chapter 7: Part of U.S. Bankruptcy Code that deals with liquidations of a company's assets.
Chapter 11: Chapter in the U.S. Bankruptcy Code that allows a business, an individual or a partnership to declare bankruptcy and postpone debt payments while the reorganization takes place.
Charter: Document issued to incorporate a business; details important aspects of the corporation.
Circulation: Number of copies distributed of a print advertisement.
Click-Through Rate (CTR): Number of clicks-through per ad impression. (refers to on-line ads)
Co-Branding: Pairing of two or more brands on a single good or service.
Cold Call: Unscheduled contact by phone or in person between seller and prospective customer.
Commercial Bank: Financial institution that raises funds by collecting deposits from businesses and customers; makes loans to businesses and customers; purchases corporate and government bonds.
Commercial Paper: Short-Term unsecured note (2 to 270 days) issued by companies with good credit standings.
Commissions: Compensation for meeting specific sales objectives.
Commodity: Bulk goods, such as wheat or metal, that investors buy or sell usually via futures contracts.
Common Stock: Type of security that gives partial ownership in a company; has a vote in electing board of directors; entitles the holder to share in company's success through dividends and/or capital appreciation.
Communism: State ownership of the means of production.
Company: A business organization that makes money by producing or selling goods or services.
Comparative Advertising: Persuading an audience to purchase a specific product by showing a brand's superiority in comparison with competing brands.
Competitive Advantage: Advantage gained that makes a product more desirable than the competition; persuading customers to buy it instead; can include lower prices and superiority of goods or services.
Conglomerate Merger: When two companies in unrelated industries join together.
Consumer: Person who uses a product but does not necessarily buy it.
Consumer Markets: Individuals or households that purchase goods or services for consumption or use.
Consumer Price Index (CPI): Monthly government statistical measure that shows the trend of prices of goods and services purchased by consumers; measures inflation.
Consumer Product: Product intended for and purchased by households for their use.
Contribution Margin: Difference between variable revenue and variable cost.
Conventional Mortgage: Mortgage not insured or guaranteed by the federal government.
Corporation: State-chartered entity that pays taxes and is legally distinct from its owners.
Cost Of Goods Sold (COGS): Cost of materials used in producing a product or service.
Cost Per Click (CPC): Cost that advertisers pay each time a user clicks an ad or link.
Creditors: Financial institutions (or individuals) that provide loans.
Critical Path: Sequence of events in a project, listed in order according to completion time.
Current Assets: Represents cash, accounts receivable, inventory, prepaid expenses and other assets that can be converted to cash within one year.
Current Liabilities: Operating loans, accounts payable and accrued charges (including outstanding checks, wages, long-term debt payments and taxes) due within a year.
Current Ratio: Indication of a company's ability to meet short-term debt obligations; the greater the ratio, the more liquid the company; current assets divided by current liabilities. CURRENT RATIO = CURRENT ASSETS / CURRENT LIABILITIES
Customer: Person who buys a product but doesn't necessarily use it.
Customer Profile: Characteristics of the typical customer (based on demographics).
Customer Relationship Management (CRM): Integrated information system designed to build customer loyalty by having customer information in a central database.
Cyclical Unemployment: Unemployment due to a recession; happens when the demand for labor declines.
Debt-To-Equity Ratio: Measures the amount of long-term financing provided by debt relative to equity; long-term debt divided by owner's equity. Debt-To-Equity Ratio = Long-Term Debt / Owner's Equity
Demand-Pull Inflation: Increases in prices that occur when demand exceeds supply.
Demand Schedule: Table or Schedule Indicating Quantity of a product that would be demanded at a certain price point.
Demographics: Characteristics of the human population or specific segments of the population.
Depreciate: To decreases in value or price.
Depreciation: Decrease in the value of fixed assets because of deterioration of assets over a period of time.
Direct Marketing Channel: Goods and services sold directly from the producer to end user without involvement of an intermediary.
Earnings Per Share (EPS): Company's income for a period divided by the number of shares outstanding at the end of the period.
E-Commerce: Use of electronic media (i.e. the Internet) to produce or sell goods and services.
Economic Growth: Change in the general level of economic activity.
Economies of Scale: As the quantity produced increases, the cost per unit decreases in the long run.
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): Exchange of standardized document forms between computers for business use.
Embargo: Government action stopping the import or export of a certain commodity or commodities.
Entrepreneur: One who assumes all financial risk of the initiation, operation and management of a given business undertaking.
Environmental Analysis: Gathering and examining data about a company, including political, cultural, social, demographics, economic, legal, international and ecological factors.
Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO): Federal legislation prohibiting employment discrimination based on race, sex, religion or ethnic background,
Equilibrium Price: Price at which the quantity of a good supplied by firms equals the quantity of the product demanded by customers.
Equity: Difference between the fair market value of property and the amount still owed; ownership interest in a business.
Equity Contribution: Cash that the owner(s) or investor(s) has (have) invested in the business in return for a share of ownership.
Esteem Needs: Self-esteem, attention and recognition from others.
Exclusive Distribution: Product distributed through one specific wholesaler or retailer in a market area.
Exporting: Selling products or services to other countries.
Exposure: Any opportunity for customers to see and/or hear an advertising message in a certain media vehicle.
Federal Budget Deficit: When federal government spending exceeds the amount of taxes and other revenue received by the federal government.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC): Federal government agency that insures accounts at most commercial banks and savings banks.
Federal ID Number: Identification number the IRS (or a state taxing authority) assigns to businesses for taxpaying purposes.
Federal Reserve System ("The Fed"): Central bank of the U.S.; responsible for implementing the nation's monetary policy and assisting the nation in attaining its economic and financial goals.
Finance Companies: Companies that make loans to individuals or businesses.
Financial Analysis: Analysis of a company's financial statement.
First In, First Out (FIFO): Inventory system in which the first goods purchased are the first ones sold.
Fixed Annuity: Investment contract sold by insurance company that guarantees fixed payments for life (or a specified period) to the annuitant.
Fixed Assets: Long-term, tangible assets held for business use and not expected to convert to cash in the current or upcoming fiscal year; items include real estate, equipment and furniture.
Fixed Costs: Operating expenses that do not change in response to the number of products produced.
Forecast: Predicated amount of revenue generation over a specified period of time.
Foreclosure: Legal process by which mortgaged property is sold to pay loan of defaulting borrower.
Forward Contract: Contract that states an exchange of currency will occur at a specified exchange rate at a future time.
Forward Rate: Exchange rate a bank will offer at a future time.
Franchise: Business arrangement under authorization to sell or distribute a company's goods or services; the owner allows others to use its trademark, trade name or copyright.
Franchisee: Purchaser of a franchise; agrees to sell the product according to the franchiser's requirements.
Franchiser: Company that allows a license to individuals to operate under the trademark and operating systems of that company.
Frictional Unemployment: Temporary unemployment that occurs when people are between jobs or in seasonal employment.
Futures: Contract to buy or sell a commodity or financial instrument at a specific price on a specified date.
Gantt Chart: Bar graph that measures how long each task in production process will take.
Generic Brand: Product named by its generic class.
Goodwill: Amount representing the excess paid for a company, its shares, or other assets over and above its net asset value.
Going Public: Company's initial stock issue to the public
Gross Domestic Product (GDP): Total value of goods and services produced by a nation's national in said nation and abroad in a given period of time.
Gross Profit: Net sales minus cost of goods and services sold.
Gross Sales: Total value of sales prior to deducting returns, allowances or discounts.
Hierarchy Of Needs Model: Human behavior theory proposed by Abraham H. Maslow
Horizontal Merger: Merger of two or more companies in same industry that produce the same type of good(s) or service(s).
Income Statement: Financial statement that reports revenue, cost and profits over a period of time.
Incorporation: Process that makes a business a separate legal entity from its owner.
Incremental Cost: Additional business expense incurred by taking a certain action.
Inflation: Rise in general level of prices of goods and services over a specific period of time; can be estimated by measuring percentage change in consumer price index (CPI).
Infomercial: Program-length televised commercial advertising goods and/or services; often includes a direct response offer.
Initial Public Offering (IPO): Company's first sale of stock to the public.
Insertion Order: Instructions to publisher detailing the placement of material for a print ad.
Inside Board Members: Board members who are also managers in the company.
Inside Sales: Sales done via phone.
Integrated Marketing: Coordination of all promotion vehicles to ensure consistent marketing message.
Intensive Distribution: Product is distributed through all or most wholesalers or retailers selling that product in the marketplace.
Interest: Fee charged for using an institution's or individual's money or credit; expressed as percentage rate over a time period.
International Licensing Agreement: Agreement that allows a foreign entity to produce another company's product according to the exact standard of that company.
Inventory Cost: Process of maintaining sufficient inventory at a level that minimizes costs.
Job Analysis: Determining the skills and attributes needed for a specific employment position.
Joint Venture: Agreement between two or more companies to take on same business strategy and plan of action
Just-In-Time (JIT): Strategy that reduces inventory levels by working closely with suppliers to coordinate delivery of materials just before use in manufacturing or supply process.
Last In, First Out (LIFO): Inventory system in which the last item purchased is the first item used.
Law Of Demand: Increase in price causes decrease in quantity demanded.
Law Of Supply: Increase in price causes increases in quantity supplied.
Lease: Written agreement renting assets for specified period of time in exchange for payment, normally in form of rent.
Leasehold improvement: Improvement(s) made on leased property.
Liability: Anything that a company owes.
Limit Order: Order to buy or sell a security at a specified price or better.
Limited Liability Company (LLC): Type of business ownership combing features of a corporation and partnership; has limited liability; avoids double taxation.
Limited Partnership: Partnership with one general partner and any number of limited partners; they can purchase interest and be held liable only to the extent of their interest and not risk personal liability.
Line Of Credit: Agreement with bank or financial institution that extends credit up to a certain amount and period of time a specified borrower.
Liquid: Asset that can be converted into cash quickly and without any price discount.
Loan-to-value ratio (LTV): Relationship between the amount of mortgage lean and appraised value of property(expressed as a percentage).
Macroeconomics: Study of economic aggregates, such as national production and price level.
Macroenvironment: Factors that influence an organization but are outside that organization's control.
Management: Administration and policymakers of company or organization; utilizing employees and other resources in the way that best archives company's plans and objectives.
Managers: Employees responsible for managing work tasks of other employees, as well as for making key business decisions.
Market: Actual and potential buyers of a good or service.
Market Coverage: Degree of product distribution among outlets.
Market Research: Gathering, recording and analysis of data in regard to specific customer group; used to make marketing decisions.
Market Share: Company's total sales as proportion of the total market.
Marketing: Operations needed to get goods or services developed, priced, distributed and promoted to customers.
Marketing Channel: Set of companies necessary to transfer title to goods and move goods from point of production to point consumption.
Marketing Concept: Philosophy that guides the attitude of everyone in a company to stimulate and satisfy needs and wants of every customer.
Marketing Environment: Environments within and outside an organization's control that can directly or indirectly affect the activities of that organization (includes macroenvironment, microenvironment and internal environment).
Marketing Intermediaries: Independent firms that help the flow of goods and services from producers to end users (includes agents, wholesalers, retailers, marketing service agencies and financial institutions).
Marketing Mix: Variables (4 Ps: product, place, price, promotion) used to achieve sales in target market.
Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs: Human behavioral theory that ranks needs into five categories (physiology needs, safety needs, social or belonging & love needs, esteem needs, self-actualization); as each need is surmounted, motivation sets achieve next category.
Merchant: Marketing intermediary that takes title to and resells merchandise.
Merger: Two or more companies combining to become one; assets and liabilities of the selling firm(s) are absorbed by the purchasing company.
Microeconomics: Study of the behavior of consumers and producers operating in the individual markets of the economy.
Mission Statement: Statement that communicates an organization's purpose, goals, values and functions.
Money: Coin or currency considered in reference to its value or purchasing power; hence, property or possessions of any kind viewed as convertible into money or having value expressible in terms of money.
Money Supply: Amount of money in circulation.
Monopoly: Market for a good or service that only has one seller/supplier.
Mutual Fund: Company that invests shareholders' monies in securities.
National Association Of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation System (NASDAQ): Computerized system that provides price quotations for securities traded over-the-counter (OTC).
Net Present Value (NPV): Used in a capital budget when the present value (PV) of cash flow is subtracted from the initial investment (I). NPV = PV - I
Net Profit Margin: Measures how effective a company is at cost control; usually expressed as a percentage, net profits divided by net revenue. NET PROFIT MARGIN = NET PROFITS / NET REVENUE
Net Sales: Gross sales minus returns, allowances and discounts.
New York Stock Exchange (NYSE): Located on Wall Street in New York City; also called the "Big BOard'; 2000 common and preferred stocks traded.
Operating Expenses: Expense incurred in normal day-to-day business.
Organizational Chart: Graphic showing positions within a company(by name and title) and the reporting relationship.
Organizational Structure: Way company is organized; identifies functions for each position within a company and reporting relationships between those positions.
Outside Board Member: Board members who are not managers within the company.
Outside Sales: Sales made by individuals visiting others in person.
Outsourcing: Purchasing service(s) from outside vendor(s) to replace having the task(s) done within an organization's internal operations.
Owner's Equity: Total Assets minus total liabilities of a company or individual.
Par Value: Amount an issuer of a bond agrees to pay at the bond's maturity; also, the stated issue price of a security.
Partnership: Business ownership involving two or more people who are fully liable for all business debts.
Pay-Per-Click (PPC): Online advertising pricing model where advertisers pay agencies based on the number of clicks on a promotion.
Personal Selling: Sales presentation that involves face-to-face interaction with a customer.
Physiological Needs: Basic needs for survival (food, water, air, health and sleep).
Points: Prepaid interest charged by a lender to lower the interest rate of a loan; 1 point is equal to 1% of the loan amount.
Policies: Guidelines for how certain tasks should be completed.
Preferred Stock: Capital Stock that represents a partial ownership in a company; provides a specific dividend paid prior to any dividends paid to common stockholders.
Premium: Gift to consumers who purchase a specific product.
Price Index: Average Level of prices relative to average level in base time period.
Prime Rate: Interest rate banks charge on loans to low-risk borrowers.
Private Company: Company whose shares are not traded on the open market.
Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI): Required on almost every conventional loan with less than 20% down payment; protects lender in case borrower defaults on loan.
Privatization: Process of selling government-owned businesses to private companies.
Producer Price Index (PPI): Measure of average price of goods bought by producers.
Product: Goods or Services that satisfy a need.
Product differentiation: Attributes that make one product different from another.
Product Life Cycle: Stages a product is thought to go through from creation to death; introductory, growth, maturity and decline.
Product Line: Related goods or services offered by a single company.
Product Mix: Variety of goods or services offered by a company.
Profit and Loss Statement (P&L): Summary of a company's revenues, costs and expenses within an accounting period.
Program Evaluation And Review Technique (PERT): Method for analyzing tasks needed to complete a project and time estimates to complete each task.
Promotion Budget: Money reserved to pay for all promotion methods over a given period of time.
Promotion Mix: Communication techniques used to achieve specific goals; include advertising, personal selling, sales promotion and public relations.
Prospect: Company or individual in need of a particular good or service; to seek out (through personal contact) potential buyers of a good or service and try to sell to them.
Prospectus: Legal document that describes the securities offered for sale, including information on investment objective, policies, fees and services.
Proxy: Documents that provide shareholders with the necessary information to vote in an informed manner on matters to be brought up at a stockholders' meeting; shareholders often give management their proxy (i.e. responsibility and right to vote their shares outlined in the proxy statement).
Public Company: Company whose shares are traded on the open market, following a public offering.
Public Offering: Selling of securities to the public; must be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
Public Relations: Using Publicity and other nonpaid forms of promotion and information to create a positive public image.
Public Sector: Government-owned businesses.
Pull Strategy: Promotion specifically directed at the target market; used to build consumer demand for product.
Push Strategy: Promotion of product directed at the wholesaler or retailers; they, in turn, promote to consumer.
Quality: Degree to which a good or service meets the specifications of the customer.
Quality Control: Process that determines if a good or service meets the desired level of excellence.
Quick Ratio: Measures a company's liquidity; used to evaluate creditworthiness; equals quick assets (cash, marketable securities, accounts receivable) divided by current liabilities. QUICK RATIO = CASH + MARKETABLE SECURITIES + ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE / CURRENT LIABILITIES
Ratio Analysis: Evaluation: Evaluation and interpretation of the relationship between financial statement variables.
Rebate: Return of a portion of the purchase price from the manufactacturer.
Recession: Two or more consecutive quarters of decline of the gross domestic product (GDP).
Reminder Advertising: Used to keep customers thinking about a product.
Return on Asset (ROA): Measures a company's profitability; net profits divided by total assets. Return on Assets = Net Profits / Total Assets
Return on Equity (ROE): Measures the return to the stockholder as a percentage of his/her investment; net profit divided by owner's equity. Return on Equity = Net Profit / Owner's Equity
Return on Investment (ROI): Monetary Value created or expected to be achieved by an investment of money.
S-Corporation: Corporation whose income is taxed to its shareholders; does not directly pay federal income tax on earnings.
Sales Promotion: Marketing activities designed to encourage sale of product or service; rebates, coupons, sampling, displays and premiums.
Salvage Value: Value of an asset at the end pf the asset's useful life, which a company can receive from selling it.
Sampling: Process that assesses quality by randomly selecting products and testing them to see if they meet the standard of excellence; a promotional technique that offers free goods to encourage consumers to purchase new brand or product.
Seasonal Unemployment: Unemployment that occurs due to change of season that affects demand for certain kinds of labor.
Secondary Market: Market where securities are traded among investors after they were initially offered in the primary market (e.g., NYSE, AMEX and NASDAQ).
Secured Bonds: Bonds issued by borrowers backed by collateral number of wholesalers or retailers in a market area.
Selective Distribution: Product is distributed through a limited number of wholesalers or retailers in a market area.
Self-Actualization: When an individual has reached his/her full potential as a human being.
Shortage: Quantity supplied by company is less than quantity demanded by customers.
Social Need: need to be accepted in a group.
Social Responsibility: Awareness of how business decisions can affect society.
Socialism: Worker ownership of the means of production.
Sole Proprietorship: Unincorporated business owned and operated by one individual.
Span Control: Number of people managed by a manager or supervisor.
Sport-Exchange Rate: Exchange rate quoted for immediate transactions.
Stakeholders: Individuals that have an interest in a business, including customers, owners, creditors, employees and suppliers.
Stock: Certificate representing share of ownership in a company.
Stockholders: Investors who are partial owners of a company because they purchased stock in said company.
Strategic Business Unit (SBU): Division or product line within parent company but with seperate goals and objectives.
Strategic Plan: Set of plans that describes company's goals and objectives.
Structural Unemployment: Long-term unemployment caused by workers not having adequate skills.
Supply Chain: Process from beginning of production until product reaches end consumer.
Supply Schedule: Table or schedule that shows the relationship between the price and quantity of a good or service that producers can supply.
Surplus: Quantity supplied by company exceeds quantity demanded by customers.
SWOT Analysis: Research that is broken down into four areas: strengths (internal), weakness (internal), opportunities (external) and threats (external).
Target Market: Selected group of customers (or potential customers) at which to focus marketing efforts to sell a particular good or service.
Telemarketing: Using the telephone for promoting and selling goods and services.
Times Interest Earned Ratio (TIER): MEasures the ability of a company to cover its interest payments; earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) divided by annual interest expense. Times Interest Earned = Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT) / Annual Interest Expense
Total Quality Management (TQM): Philosophy based on idea that successful companies continuously improve the quality of their products; quality defined by the customer.
Trade Deficit: Amount of imports exceeds amount of exports.
Treasury Bills (T-Bills): Short-term debt security issued by The U.S. Treasury Department; has maturity of one year or less and low risk.
Treasury Notes(T-Notes): Debt obligations of the U.S. government; have maturities of 1 to 10 years.
Two-Level Channel: Two Marketing intermediaries between producer and customer.
Underwriting: Evaluating a loan application to determine risk for a lender.
Unlimited Liability: No limit on the debt for which the owner is liable.
Up-sell: Selling Customers a good or service of higher value.
Value added reseller (VAR): Company that sells another company's product by adding features to it.
Variable Costs: Operating expenses that vary directly with the number of products being produced.
Variable Rate: Interest rate that changes periodically in relation to the index.
Venture Capital Firm: Investment firm that invests shareholders' money in startup companies, companies that are expanding, and other risky but potentially profitable ventures.
Vertical Merger: Merger of two companies in the same industry but at different stages in the production cycle.
Credits for terms and definitions: BarCharts, Inc. and Oxford Dictionary.
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