The Start of Aloha
Aloha means The Breath of Life or The Presence of Breathe. The World Aloha owes Aloha to Hawaii where the language of origin, Hawaiian, is the Creator of the word Aloha. Hawaii is a collection on Active volcanic Island located in the Pacific Ocean. The most famous Islands of Hawaii include Big Island(Island of Hawaii), Maui & Oahu. Hawaii has 137 Islands! Hawaii was discovered somewhere in the time period 124 A.D. to 1120 A.D. by Polynesian People who were Native to Tahiti, Polynesia, Samoa & Tuamotus. The exact date of touchdown is unclear due to the fact that before settlers came to Hawaii, the Hawaiian language was just an oral language with no written words. No writing no history. This is why the written Hawaiian Language of Today's World utilizes Western European letters in order to spell the words. Before writing was brought to Hawaii, history was orally given through chant. These chants were usually recited at formal or family events. The governance of The Ancient Kingdom of Hawaii was administered by a Chief; Ali'i Chief or Hereditary Chief. The Power was divided amongst smaller chiefs known as konohiki. These Chiefs were believed to have come from the line of the First Polynesian (Papa) who was known as The World (Earth) goddess of The Traditional Hawaiian Religion. Konohiki are also known as Land Agents. The Konohiki were responsible for Tributes and gifts. This is how The Kingdom of Hawaii operated until the unification.
The Kingdom of Hawaii
The Hawaiian Kingdom was founded in 1795 when The Islands; Hawaii, Oahu, Maui, Molokai and Lanai were unified under from One Supreme King. The Military Leader Kamehameha The Great commanded A Streak of Battles everlasting 15 years that would lead to The Unification. In 1810 The Whole Hawaii was unified when Kauai and Niihau joined the kingdom willingly. This ended The Ancient Hawaiian Society and began a constitutional Monarchy rooted in The Traditions of Hawaii and The Traditions of Europa. Now thou ask, how would that have known of European Traditions? Well, before the unification, Hawaii was explored to by Captain James Cook, who would've taught The Hawaiian of his customs and culture and vice versa. In fact this has to do with Hawaii's Flag which is a combination of The United Kingdom's Flag, and eight stripes, similar to Americas 13 stripes which represent 13 colonies while the eight stripes on The Hawaiian flag represent The eight major islands of Hawaii which are Hawaii, Maui, Kaho'olawe, Lanai, Moloka'i, O'ahu, Kaua'i and Ni'ihau. With the unification of The Kingdom of Hawaii, The Kamehameha Dynasty began.
Kalani Pai'ea Wohi o Kaleikini Keali'kui Kamehameha o 'Iolani i Kaiwikapu Kau'i Ka Liholiho Kunuiakea or King Kamehameha I (Kamehameha The Great) for short was The First King and Founder of The Unified Kingdom of Hawaii. Kamehameha I was born in Kohalo, Hawaii in 1758. Before the unification King Kamehameha battled for 15 years to seize dominance over The Islands of Hawaii. King Kamehameha I was very successful in his fights and would go on to be sovereign over all the Islands of Hawaii. His rule was based off The Traditional Hawaii system of Kapu with a mix of a new principles known as mamalahoe kanawai, translated to law of the splintered paddle. The new laws would set to safeguard travelers and the powerless. King Kamehameha Today is legendary to the Hawaiian People.
King Kamehameha II
Kamehameha The Great died in 1819 and was succeeded by his son Liholiho who would go by the name Kamehameha II. Kamehameha II was born in 1819 in Hilo, Hawaii. Kamehameha II's rule was undermined by Queen Ka'ahumanu because she wanted The Power. She once declared to The People of Hawaii that "We Two shall rule the land". Due to Kamehameha II's naivety to power and rule, he really did not have a choice in the matter. Kamehameha II's legacy is best known by the 'Ai Noa which was the breaking of The Ancient Taboo, the Kapu. This taboo was broken was he sat down with Kaʻahumanu and his mother Keopuolani and ate a meal together. This led to the destruction of Hawaiian religious temples and images and the dispaining of the preist class.In 1824 while on a voyage to England, King Kamehameha II suffered pneumonia and died.
King Kamehameha III
Keaweaweʻula Kīwalaʻō Kauikeaouli Kaleiopapa Kalani Waiakua Kalanikau Iokikilo Kīwalaʻō i ke kapu Kamehameha also known as Kamehameha III was born 1825 in Kona, Hawaii. He was the third ruler of the unified Kingdom of Hawaii. Before his reign, Hawaii was an Absolute Monarchy, under his rule The Kingdom of Hawaii became a constitutional Monarchy with signing of the 1840 constitution and the 1852 constitution. King Kamehameha III had a short life only living to 40 years old dying on December 15th, 1854, about 100 year before Elvis Presley, The King of Rock N Roll and a big fan of Hawaii would become a Super Star.
King Kamehameha IV
King Kamehameha IV was born February 9th, 1834 in Honolulu, Oahu. His reign as King of Hawaii would begin on January 11th, 1855 at 20 Years Old. In the time of his rule, Americans were increasingly growing in Power in Hawaii's Political, Cultural and Economic realm. He sought to halt to conquest in fears of his land, Hawaii, from being conquered by America. We know today that 104 years after he ascension as sovereign over Hawaii, that hawaii would in fact become an American State. Nonetheless he did not have the benefit of hindsight. Kamehameha IV wanted to end Hawaii's dependence on American Trade therefore to end influence that Americans could bring to The Kingdom of Hawaii. He tried to make Trade Deals with Europe and The Kingdom(Britain/The United Kingdom) but he died before any of these proposals could come into reality. On November 30, 1864 King Kamehameha IV died in his Hometown of Honolulu, Oahu at the very young age of 29. Maybe if he had lived for just a little bit longer Today's World Hawaii may have been a Kingdom.
King Kamehameha V
The Final Kamehameha, King Kamehameha V was born in Honolulu, Oahu on December 11th, 1830. He assumed reign on November 30th, 1863. Kamehameha V became the Creator of The Royal Order of Kamehameha I Society in honor of his grandfather King Kamehameha I. The Royal Order of Kamehameha I Society was knighthood dedicated to defending The Sovereignty of The Monarchy of The Kingdom of Hawaii.
Travel to Hawaii boomed during King Kamehameha V's reign as King of Hawaii. Today Hawaii is an extremely popular tourist destination that I would say almost all humans outside of Hawaii would want to visit. One other notable point in his reign is his bringing upon Universal Male Suffrage, The Right to Vote, in The election of The House of Representatives in The Kingdom of Hawaii. He also was The First King of Hawaii who cheer on the return to Traditional Hawaiian Values and Practices. He died at age 42 in his Hometown Honolulu, Oahu on December 11th 1872. His Birthday was also his Deathday.
Lunalilo was The First King of Hawaii without the title of Kamehameha was born in Pohukaina, Honolulu, Oahu on January 31st, 1874. Funny how this article is being published on his Birthday; 146 Years later. Lunalilo was The First Elected Monarch of Hawaii. Lunalilo was known as The People's King. His reign began on January 8th, 1873. He spent his reign making The Monarchy of Hawaii more democratic. He really wanted The People of Hawaii to make the choices necessary to grow Hawaii's Power and economic standing in The World. He died in Haimoeipo, Honolulu, Oahu on February 3rd, 1874 at age 39.
Born November 16th, 1836, King Kalakaua would come to being in Honolulu, The Kingdom Of Hawaii. King Kalakaua would be the last King of Hawaii but not the last monarch. He was also known as The Merrie King. In 1881 King Kalakaua would Travel The World with his friends and his personal cook. He visited places like California, Japan, China, Southeast Asia, Europe, Portugal, Washington D.C. & San Francisco. In 1875 he signed a Free Trade Agreement with America and Hawaii known as The Reciprocity Treaty of 1875. This Free Trade Agreement would allow for US duty free trade of Sugar and other products between the two nations. This eventually gave America the territory Pearl Harbor even though Kalakaua was opposed to this. On January 20th, 1891 at age 54, King Kalakaua passed away in San Francisco, California, America; becoming The Second King of Hawaii to die outside of Hawaii's borders. The First King of Hawaii to die outside of Hawaii was King Kamehameha II who died in London, England.
The First Queen of Hawaii and The Last Monarch of Hawaii, Queen Liliuokalani was born in Honolulu, Oahu, The Kingdom Of Hawaii on September 2nd, 1838. She would reign from January 29th, 1891 to January 17th, 1893 when The Kingdom of Hawaii was overthrown. When she took oath of office, she declared that she we be The First and Only Queen of Hawaii. One of her first commands were to ask for the resignation of the holdover cabinet from her brother's reign. They refused, and asked for a ruling by the Hawaii Supreme Court. This first act of her being rejected was the first nail in the coffin of the monarchy, undermining your ruler will do that. Political infighting and other undesirable factors would eventually lead to the overthrow of The Kingdom of Hawaii. Queen Liliuokalani would become deceased on November 11, 1917 at age 79. Her reign ended 24 years earlier. Her reign lasted a little under two years.
The End of Hawaiian Monarchy
The Overthrow of The Hawaiian Kingdom Started on January 17th, 1893. The overthrow against The Final Monarch came via coup by American and other foreign citizens residing in The Kingdom of Hawaii; specifically Honolulu. The U.S. Marine corps protected the American and foreign interests in Hawaii and helped the revelounitions overthrow The Monarchy and establish The Republic of Hawaii. Later on Hawaii became annexed by America and became a United States territory in 1898. 61 Years later Hawaii would gain Statehood in The United States of America and would become The Last state of The USA in 1959.
The Aloha State Today is a Super Awesome, Beautiful & Spectacular spot for Travel, Tourism and relaxation. The Native Hawaiians are quite Friendly and so are the other locals. They all encompass the essence of Aloha and practice its spirit daily. Hawaii can become very expensive but the cost is quite worth it to visit this marvelous Island(s). Sure Hawaii has its problems, but who doesn't, overall Hawaii is worthwhile and there is a reason why it culture influence much of Today's World!
The ancient Civilization of Troy
The Ancient Civilization of Troy also known as Troja, Illion, Ilios, Illium or Troia is located in Anatolia or West Coast of Turkey in Today's World. The people who inhabited Troja are called The Trojans. Troja is the place of Legend being the setting of the story The Iliad by Homer, the grounds of The Trojan War and also the people who fled Troja after its fall are believe to be The Roman Italians (Latins) in Today's World!
The Start of Troja
Troys History is split into it's 10 Major incarnations, Troy 1, Troy 2, Troy 3, Troy 4, Troy 5, Troy 6, Troy 7A, Troy 7B, Troy 8 & Troy 9. Troy 1 was founded in the Third Millennium B.C. during The Bronze Age. Troy 1 had a giant wall surrounding its borders to protect it from invaders. The Citadel it surrounded was not big however, for it was only 90 Meters or about 300 feet tall. A Citadel is a fortress that is usually on high ground that Dominates and protects a city, like Troy for example. Due to the located of The Ancient City of Troy, it was able to Juggernaut in The Dardanelles; a narrow Straight that is Internationally significant in Turkey to this day, with absolute control of its waters. Whether of not there was A King of Troy 1 is unknown Today. Troy 1 was not destroyed by fire or invasion but in fact was demographically changed by peoples of a different culture. Troy 1 was now taken over.
Troy II was founded 400 years after Troy 1 in 2600 B.C. The big difference between Troy 1 & II are the size and space the two had. Troy II was about twice the size of Troy 1 with a High Upper Citadel and a lower town within its walls. The King of Troy II lived in Palace that was Megaron style; common in Classical World Greece, in The Upper Acropolis. Troy II was destroyed by a Big Fire and was no more around 2250 B.C. Troy II lasted 350, 50 years shy of lasting as long as Troy 1 did.
Troy III, IV & V
Troy III was founded in 2250 B.C. After the fire The Trojans rebuilt Troy bigger than before, but throughout Troy III to V, there is evidence of economic downturn by reason of houses being smaller and more compact than in Troy II. The Walls of Troy III, IV & V were still magnificent however, bringing evidence that The Kings of Troy were perhaps not feeling the impact of the economic decline. The focus also seemed to be on defending Troy and not expanding Troy to other territories. Troy IV was founded in 2100 BC and Troy V was founded in 1950 BC.
Troy VI was founded around 1900 B.C. Troy IV was a massive by Ancient World Standards with a population around 5000 to 10,000 People. Troy IV is recognized by it's pillars at the south gate. It is thought that pillars were used for Religious purposes as opposed to practical structures for personal use. Mycenaean pottery found in Troy IV is evidence of trade with The Greeks still being active. Troy IV is believed to have been destroyed by an Earthquake in 1250 B.C.
Troy 7A was founded in 1300 B.C. It is believed that it was built atop the ruins of Troy VI. Troy 7A Trojans moved within the walls of the citadel due to the threat of the Mycenaeans. Troy 7A is thought to have been the sight of The Trojan War.
The Trojan War
The Trojan war started in either the 13th or 12th Century B.C. The Trojan War was battled between The Trojans & The Classical World Greeks. The Trojan War started when Paris, son of The Trojan King, stole Helen from Menelaus from Sparta; her husband. Agamemnon, Menelaus's Brother, wanting to deliver Helen of Troy; his brother's wife back into his brother's arms; began The Trojan War! Many of the events of The Trojan War were told in The Iliad written by Homer; A Classical World Greek. The Trojan War was fought for 10 Years. The war ended when The Greek built a colossal wooden horse and hid themselves with it. This giant wooden horse would be called The Trojan Horse. When The Trojans brought The Trojan Horse into their walls the Greeks came out and sacked The City of Troy. The Greeks hath won the war. It is believed that some of the fleeing Trojans would later hath founded Roma, The Roman Empire.
Troy 7B was founded in the 1200's B.C. by new settlers. Not much is known about these settlers and they disappeared at around 1100 B.C.
Troy VIII was founded in 700 B.C. Troy VIII was controlled by many different Nations and Cities. After the defeat of Persia by Greeks, Mytilene controlled Troy VIII until the Mytilenean revolt and Athens brought Freedom to Troy. In 399 Sparta controlled Troy. Control of Troy went back and forth for many years until its sacking in 85 B.C. by Rome.
Troy IX was founded in 85 B.C by The Roman Empire. The Siege of Troy by The Roman General Fimbria lasted eleven days. Troy was returned to The Trojans; The Romans now. The city had financial woes even though in had praise from The Romans. This situation was not helped in 80 B.C. when Pirates attacked Troy. Julius Caesar awarded benefactions to Troy because of its loyalty in The Mithridates Wars. Both Julius Caesar and Emperor Augustus Caesar took part in rebuilding Troy. During Emperor Constantine's reign, The Emperor had plans to build Troy a new Capital but instead those efforts were spent building Constantinople. Over time Troy's population grew smaller and smaller until eventually it slowly and quietly became abandon. The final lasted until 500 A.D or 550 A.D. A soft ending for a long lasting Legendary city. Troy would not be found for about 1500 Years.
Troy X or Troy 10 would be the next era of Troy. Whether or not Troy will be rebuilt in Today's World or in the future is yet to be known. This is unlikely due to Troy now being a historic site and rebuilding it may destroy The Ancient structures of The Classical World.
The Ancient City of Troy in whole lasted around 3500 Years. It's been through a lot. Having 9 incarnations it is a testament that anything, no matter how damaged, can rise again from the ashes. We too, can do the same. Just like Troy, we can fall and crumble to the ground and still rise up again. Each time getting stronger and better and learning from our mistakes. Just like Troy, we also can become Legendary.
The Classical World
The Classical World refers to the time period in Troja, Roma, Greece, India & China. The Hellenic Classical period spanned two centuries between the 5th and 4th Century B.C. The significance of this period spans to even Today's World. A lot of the customs and philosophical worldviews of The West came out of The Classical World. Notable figures like Aristotle, Socrates, Plato, Alexander The Great and Leonidas are ingrained in our minds for all time came out of The Classical World.
The Start of The Classical World
The Classical Greek Period began in The 5th Century B.C. The Start of this era was sparked by The Ionian revolt against Persian dominance in The Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus & Caria regions. This would cause The Persians to invade in 492 B.C. and eventually be defeated in 490 B.C. by Darius I in The Battle of Marathon. The Battle of Marathon actually plays part in the origin in Today's Worlds Marathon Race. In the legend, it is stated that after The battle was won, an Athenian Messenger was sent off from Marathon to Athens, a distance of 40 Kilometers or 25 Miles. Once he got to Athens, he collapsed and died of exhaustion. Today Marathons, which are now 26.2 Miles, are ran daily but runners from Around The World.
The First Peloponnesian Wars
In 431 B.C. conflict amongst two leagues of The Greek-City States broke out. The two leagues thrust into combat were The Delian League and The Peloponnesian League. The Delian League were made of multiple Greek-City States commanded by Athens. The Peloponnesian League had Sparta as its Leader. Sparta is itself a Greek City State that earlier in 510 B.C. helped Athens overthrow their sovereign, King Hippias. Athens replaced its Monarchy with Democracy in 507 B.C. Back at the time it was called Demokratia. Demo in Greek is People and Kratos in Greek translates to Power. People's Power or Rule of The People would be its full translation. Now whether or not this was a good thing is still up for debate. Aristotle, a Classical World Philosopher stated "Democracy arouse from men's thinking that if they are equal in any respect they are equal absolutely." Aristotle had other protest to Democracy including that for it too work all must be virtuous while in monarchy only one must be.
Sparta had a Diarchy. A Diarchy is a government with to sovereign heads. The first advance by The Spartans in the conflict was to breach Attica. The Athenians were able to Maintain Attica from the Spartans by drawing back behind the walls. After years of combat no clear victor was decided and 421 B.C. The Peace of Nicias was established by Athenian Leader Nicias. The Peace of Nicias was also known as The Fifty Year Peace; it was signed by Athens and Sparta in March of that year.
Strife amongst Argos and Sparta came to being in 418 B.C. Even with Athenian support Argos fell to Sparta and Argos & The Peloponnesus were conquered. The restoration to peace for Athens helped build The Athenian Empire due to finances being brought back into order and trade opening up. The restraint for war and the emphasis on growing the economy brought upon the Peace Party.
This did not go without attention from another Greek city-state however. Conflict with Melos, started during a failed attempt to force Melos to join the Delian League back in 477 B.C. In 416 B.C. the boiling point for The Athenian thirst for combat was quenched by The Island of Melos. Melos was plundered by Athens and occupation of the island was by Athens. The hunger for conflict would not keep Athens full for long. In 415 B.C., The Sicilian Expedition henced. Alcibiades urged Athens to launch an invasion of Syracuse, a region in Sicily would was allied with The Peloponnesians.
Unlike the battles with Melos, the war with Syracuse was split in interest by The Athenian people. Some wanted it and some did not. Even so, in 415 B.C. Athens departed for Sicily. One the eve of the expedition, the Peace Party were believed to have vandalized The Greek god Hermes statues, spreading the pieces all through Athens. This of course would have been a protest to the war with Sicily. This was a desperate action taken by The Peace Party after losing the debate on war with Sicily. The Action taken by The Peace Party was seen as a bad omen, and it probably was since the expedition was a utter failure. In fact Nicias was captured and executed.
Later on Sparta, with monetary assistance from the Persians, built a naval fleet to attack Athenian Supremacy over the seas. Rookie Military Leader Lysander attacked Abydos by occupying Hellespont. Hellespont was a source of grain for Athens. Facing severe famine, Athens sent all of its fleets to defy Lysander. In 405 B.C. in Aegospotami, Athenian fleets were crushed. With this, Athens was faced with potential Bankruptcy and 404 B.C. asked for Peace. Sparta did not comply and Athens lost their fleet, their city walls and all their belongings overseas. Lysander withdraw Athens democracy and installed a Oligarchy known as The Thirty Tyrants. Athenian dominance was over.
The rise and fall of sparta
The Spartans were now The Masters of The Classical World. Their short-minded warrior mentality did not mix well with this new role however and 9 years, The Power of democracy returned to Athens. Sparta removed Lysander, and Sparta lost its naval supremacy. Greek city-states; Athens, Argo, Thebes, and Corinth, challenged Sparta's dominance in the Corinthian War, which ended in 387 B.C. with no clear victor. In 378 B.C. Thebans in Thebes, which was controlled by Sparta, revolted. An alliance between Athens and Thebes was formed and war with Sparta was on. In 375 B.C. Theban Leader Pelopidas defeated The Spartans in The Battle of Tegyra. In little time, Theban authority increased expedentionally. The Thebans growing influence over The Classical World sparked suspicion in Athens. After Thebes sacked Athenian ally Plataea, Athens formed an alliance with Sparta to face-off with Thebes. In 371 Thebes attacked Sparta, winning The Battle of Leuctra. This would spell the fall of Sparta, however influence over Sparta would not be Theban but Athenian.
The Rise of Macedonia
In 357 B.C. the revolt against the Athens began to spread. From 357 B.C. and 355 B.C., Athens had to face war against its allies. The caused The King of Persia to give an ultimatum to Athens. It demanded Athens to recognise its allies' sovereignty. Threat of Persia's sending two hundred Persian soldiers were the latter for the Athenians. This severely weakened Athenian Power ending the rule of Athens over Greece. Thebes after this event gained control all the way till 346 B.C. In 346 B.C. Macedon gained power in The Classical World thanks to The Leader Philip of Macedon. Between 359 B.C. to 336 B.C. Macedon took control over the Paeonians, the Illyrians & the Thracians. This was a great feat for Macedon but would soon be outshined by Macedon later Leader Alexander The Great. Tutored by The Philosopher Aristotle, Alexander The Great was well-equipped to become of The Best Kings and conquerors of All Time. His conquest consisted of Anatolia, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Gaza, Judea, Syria, Persia, Bacteria & Phoenicia.
The End of The Classical World
Alexander The Great conquered many lands and is World Famous Today. King Alexander is Legendary and his feats may never be forgotten. But like all things, The Legends may be immortal but The Legend is mortal. In 323 B.C. Alexander The Great died. When this event occurred this ignited another event; The end of The Classical World.
Classical Rome will be discussed briefly. The Classical World mostly referred to Classical Greece, however Rome, India and China also take a spot in The Classical World so those two also will be briefly discussed. The Start of Classical Rome was in the 8th century B.C. and the end of Classical Rome was in 6th Century A.D. The Classical period of Rome began Romulus and Remus, the predecessors of the fallen city of Troja (Troy) founded The City of Rome. Well Romulus founded it and it was named after him. This started The Roman Kingdom which lasted till 509 B.C. when The Rex (King in Latin) was overthrown and The Roman Kingdom was replaced by The Roman Republic. The Roman Republic rule of law was administered primarily by The Senate; a body of law making representatives. The senate would soon dissolve thanks to large part by Julius Caesar; a Super Awesome Military Leader. He would go on to become dictator for life but this was ended very soon because of a coop of senators who conspired to assassinate him. This would not save The Roman Republic however, for his adopted son, Octavius, would become Princeps in name; Emperor in truth; known as Augustus Caesar; The First Emperor of Rome. The Roman Empire began. The Roman Empire would expand and eventually The Western Roman Empire aka Classical Rome would Fall in 476 A.D.
The Start of Classical China was in the 5th Century B.C. and The End of Classical China was in 220 A.D.
Classical China had many great historical figures. These included Confucius, Lao Tzu, Sun Tzu and more. The Silk Road thrived during this period connecting The Western World with The Eastern World. The Great Wall of China was built during Classical China. The main cause of the fall of Classical China was The Huns.
The Start of Classical India was around 500 B.C and The End of Classical India was around 500 A.D. Classical India would see the creation of The Vedas, The Caste System, Buddhism, and Sanskrit. Classical India was ruled under The Gupta Empire. Classical India would fall due to a number of factors both internal and external. Eventually in 550 A.D. Classical India would say goodbye to The World.
The Power Of The Classical World
The Classical World has Major League Power in Today's World. Big Players like King Leonidas, Aristotle, Plato, Socrates, King Alexander The Great, Julius Caesar, Confucius & Augustus Caesar influenced a mass of Today's Philosophy, Politics and World views. Leonidas a Powerful, Strong, Courageous Leader who fought off valiantly against his people's enemies. Aristotle brought about The concept of Virtue and Vice and how they work. Plato discussed Ethics and Realism. Socrates made us know that we in fact do not know anything truly. Finally Alexander The Great was a Super Powerful, Domaniting, conquering King who showed the practice of Virtue over Vice. Without The Classical World, Today's World would look alot different and perhaps would not be as well off as it is today. One can say, The Classical World is The Creator of Today's World!
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