The Start of Civilization
Before Civilization began in The World, humans were Hunter Gatherers. People were nomadic due to poor environmental conditions like The Ice Age and lack of tools and knowledge to settle in one spot for an extended period of time. Wherever the food was, the humans were. After a long passing of time, humans figured out how to farm and grow food locally and this led to them settling into one particular spot are a good amount of time. This eventually gave rise to what know Today as Civilization!
The First Civilization
In Mesopotamia, The First recorded civilization in history was born, this city state would be known as Sumer. Sumer came about around the 4th millenium B.C. Here humans thrived on the two rivers that flowed through it known as the Tigris and Euphrates. The First City in The World would come out of Sumer, called Uruk. Legends like the Epic of Gilgamesh, The Oldest Story written known to man, were set in this Ancient city. Uruk is said to have been founded by King Enmarker in The Sumer Kingslist. The Kingslist is an Ancient text written in Sumerian that list The King of Sumer. The King's List is a long list that goes on for eons in time. I shalt go over it in order. Warning, The Kinglist is going to be split into 20 parts.
The Kings List
The Kingslist start with The Antediluvian Rulers. These rulers are believed to have not been truthfully historical due to the large lifespans of these rulers. This first part of The Kingslist may have been believe to be god-Kings with there Divine Powers would have been able to live very long life spans. The List Starts with Alulim who ruled for 8 Sars(28,800 Years) then Alalngar who reign for 10 Sars (36,000 Years), then Enmenluana who reign for 12 Sars(43,200 Years), then Enmengalana who ruled for 8 Sars( 28,800 Years) then Dumuzid The Shepherd who ruled for 10 Sars, then Ensipadzidana who ruled for 8 Sars, then Enmendurana ruled for 5 Sars and 5 Ners (21,000 Years) and then Ubara Tutu who reign for 5 Sars and 1 Ner( 18,600 Years). This first set of Kings ended when The Great Flood occurred. This wiped away a ton of resources and is believe by some to be The same flood that occur in The Bible in the Noah's Ark story. After the flood The Second set of Kings came to be, The First Dynasty of Kush.
The Kings List Part 2
The First Dynasty of Kish begins with Jusher who ruled for 1200 Years, then Kullassina-bel who ruled for 960 years, then Nangishlishma whose reign was 670 Years, then Entarahana who reign for 420 years, then Babum who ruled for 300 years, then Puannum who reign for 840 years, then Kalibum who ruled for 960 years, then Kalumum who ruled for 840 years, then Zuqaqip who ruled for 900 years, then Atab or A-ba who ruled for 600 years, then Mashda who ruled for 840 years, then Arwium who ruled for 720 years, then Etana who reign for 1500 Years, then Balih who ruled for 400 Years, then Enmenuna who ruled for 660 years, then Melem-kish who ruled for 900 years, then Barsalnuna who ruled for 1200 Years, then Zamug who ruled for 140 years, then Tizqar who ruled for 305 years, then Ilku ruled for 900 years, then Iltasadum who ruled for 1200 years, then Enmebaragesi who ruled for 900 years; this is the first ruler to be confirmed independently, believed to have ruled around 2600 B.C.; and finally Aga of Kish who ruled for 625 years. After this dynasty the Kish were defeated and the kingship was taken to Eana.
The Kings List Part 3
The third part of the Kingslist is known as The First Rulers of Uruk. The Rulers start with Meshkianggasher of Eana who reign for 324 years, then Enmerkar who ruled for 420 years, then Lugalbanda who ruled for 1200 years then Dumuzid who ruled for 100 years, then Gilgamesh who is from the oldest story in The World; The Epic of Gilgamesh; ruled 120 years, then Ur Nungal ruled for 30 years, then Udul-kalama who ruled for 15 years, then La-ba'shum who ruled for 9 years, then Ennuntarahana who ruled for 8 years then Meshhe The Smith ruled for 36 years, then Melemana who ruled for 6 years and finally Lugalkitun who ruled for 36 years. This era in The Kingslist ended when The Unug was defeated and the Kingship was taken to Ur.
The Kinglist part 4
The fourth part of The Kingslist is the First Dynasty of Ur which starts with Mesh Anepada who reign for 80 years, then Meshkiang Nuna who ruled for 36 years, then Elulu who ruled for 25 years and finally Balulu who reign for 36 years. When The Urim were defeated, the kingship was brought to Awan
The Kingslist Part 5
The Fifth part of The Kingslist is not very long. It is known as The Dynasty of Awan. These were ruled by The Three Kings of Awan who ruled for 356 Years. After this reign The Awan were defeated and the kingship was returned to its original spot of Kish.
The Kingslist part 6
The Sixth part of The Kingslist is called The Second Dynasty of Kish,. This part begins with Susuda The Fuller who ruled for 201 Years, then Dadasig who ruled for 81 Years, then Mamagal The Boatman who reign for 360 years, then Kalbum who ruled for 195 years, then Tuge who ruled for 360 Years, then Mennuna who ruled for 180 Years, then Enbi Ishtar who ruled for 290 years and then Lugalngu who ruled for 360 years. The dynasty of Kish ended when it was defeated and the kingship was brought to Hamazi. This Dynasty is not in The Kingslist but known from other inscriptions outside the Kingslist. The Ruler Hadanish ruled for 360 Years and Hamazi was defeated and brought back to Uruk
The Kingslist Part 7
The Seventh part of The Kingslist is The Second Dynasty of Uruk. The list begins with Enshagkushana who ruled for 60 years, then Lugal-kinishe-dudu or Lugal-ure who ruled for 120 years and Argandea who ruled for 7 years. Uruk would be defeated by Ur and The Kingship would return to Ur.
The Kingslist part 8
The Eight Part of The Kingslist is The Second Dynasty of Ur. The Second Dynasty of Ur consist of Nanni who ruled for 120 Years and Meshkiang Nanna II who ruled for 48 Years. Ur was defeated and The Kingdom was brought to Adab.
The Kingslist part 9
The Dynasty of Adab had only one known ruler on The Kinglist. The ruler was Lugal Anemundu who ruled for 90 years. The Kingdom was brought to Mari after the defeat of Adab.
The Kingslist part 10
The tenth part of The Kingslist was known as The Dynasty of Mari. It starts with Anbu who ruled for 30 years, then Anba who ruled for 17 years, then Bazi The Leatherworker who ruled for 30 years, then Zizi of Mari The Fuller who ruled for 20 years, then Limer The 'gudug' priest who ruled for 30 years and Sharrumiter who ruled for 9 years. The Mari were defeated and The Kingdom was returned to Kish for the third time
The Kingslist Part 11
The Third Dynasty of Kish was ruled by Kug Bau The Women Tavern-keeper who made firm the foundations of Kish for 100 years. Kish was defeated and brought to Akshak.
The Kingslist Part 12
The Dynasty of Akshak was ruled first by Unzi who ruled for 30 years, then Undalulu who ruled for 6 years, then Urur who also ruled for 6 years, then Puzur Nirah who ruled for 20 years, then Ishu-II who ruled for 24 years and Shu Suen of Akshak who reign for 7 years. Akshak was defeated brought to Kish for a fourth time.
The Kingslist part 13
The Fourth Dynasty of Kish begins with Puzur Suen The son of Kug-Bau who reign for 25 years, then Ur Zababa for 400 or 6 years (questionable translation)' Sargon of Akkad was his cupbearer, then Zimudar who ruled for 30 years, then Usiwatar who ruled for 7 years, then Eshtarmuti who ruled for 11 years, then Ishme Shamash who ruled for 11 years, then Shuilishu who may have ruled for 15 years, and Nanniya The Jeweller who ruled for 7 years. Kish was defeated for a fourth time and The Kingdom was brought back to Uruk for a third time.
The Kingslist part 14
The third dynasty of Uruk was ruled by Galzagesi who ruled for 25 years. Uruk was defeated by Akkad kickstarting the Akkadian Empire.
The Kingslist part 15
The Dynasty of Akkad also known as The Akkadian Empire or The First Empire was ruled by Sargon of Akkad, also known as The First Emperor who ruled for 40 years. After that The dynasty was ruled by Rimush of Akkad for 9 years, then Manishtushu for 15 years, then Naram Sin of Akkad for 56 years, then Sharkalisharri for 25 years, then it was split between Irgigi, Imi, Nanum and Ilulu for 4 years, then Dudu of Akkad for 21 years and Shu Durul for 15 years. Uruk defeated The Akkadian Empire and took The Kingdom to Uruk for The Fourth time.
The Kingslist part 16
The Fourth Dynasty of Uruk was ruled by Urningin for 7 years, then Urgigir for 6 years, then Kuda for 6 years, then Puzurili for 5 years and finally Ur Utu or Lugalmelem for 25 years. Uruk was defeated for a fourth time and taken to Gutium.
The Kingslist Part 17
The Guitian Rule or also known as The Gutian Dynasty was ruled first by Inkishush or Inkicuc for 6 years, then Sarlagab or Zarlagab for 6 years, then Shulme or Yarlagash for 6 years, then Elulmesh or Silulumesh who reign for 6 years then Inimabakesh or Duga who ruled for 5 years, then Igeshaush or Ilu An who ruled for 6 years, then Yarlagab who ruled for 3 years, then Ibate of Gutium who ruled for 3 years, then Yarla who ruled for 3 years, then Kurum who ruled for 1 year, then Apilkin who ruled for 3 years, then Laerabum who ruled for 2 years, then Irarum who ruled for 2 years, then Ibranum who ruled for 1 years, then Hablum who ruled for 2 years, then Puzur Suen who ruled for 7 Years, then Yarlaganda who reign for 7 years, then an unknown King ruled for 7 years and finally Tirigan ruled for 40 days. The Army of Gutium was defeated by Uruk and The Kingdom was returned to Uruk for a Fifth time.
The Kingslist Part 18
The Fifth and final dynasty of Uruk was ruled by Utu-hengal who might have ruled 427 years or 26 years or 7 years. The writing is not precisely clear on the manner. Uruk was defeated by Ur and The Kingship was returned to Ur for the Third time
The Kingslist Part 19
The Third dynasty of Ur was ruled by Ur Namma or Ur Nammu for 18 years, then Shulgi for 46 years, then Amar Suena for 9 years, then Shu Suen for 9 years and Ibbi Suen for 24 years. Ur was defeated by Isin and consequently brought to Isin.
The Kingslist part 20
The Final part of The Kingslist is The Dynasty of Isin. The rulers of this dynasty are Ishbi Erra who ruled for 33 years, then Shu-Illshu who ruled for 20 years, then Iddin Dagan who ruled for 20 years, then Ishme Dagan who ruled for 20 years, then Lipit Esthar who ruled for 11 years, then Ur Ninurta who ruled for 28 years, then Bur Suen who ruled for 21 years, then Lipit Enlil who ruled for 5 years, then Erra imitti who ruled for 8 years, then Enlil bani who ruled for 24 years, then Zambiya who ruled for 3 years, then Iter-pish who ruled for 4 years, then Urdukuga who ruled for 4 years, then Suenmagir who ruled for 11 years, the last but not least, Damiq-ilishu who may have ruled and may have ruled for 23 years, it's not clear on the text. With that, this was the complete Kingslist known to man.
The First Empire
Let's go back to Sargon of Akkad and The Akkadian Empire. The Akkadian Empire was The First Empire in THe World and Sargon of Akkad was The First Emperor in The World. Sargon of Akkad was also known as Sargon The Great. The Center of The Akkadian Empire was of course Akkad. The First Empire of The World influence Power across Ancient World Mesopotamia, The Levant & Anatolia. This empire spaning in The Bronze Age from 2334 B.C. to 2154 B.C. The Akkadian Government, which was a Monarchy, established The Classical Standard. All future Mesopotamian States would try to match this Classical Standard. Traditionally, The Ensi, who was The Priest of The Land, had Supreme Power with The King, The Lugal, underneath The Ensi. This changed under Sargon of Akkad who believe he ruled The Totality of Lands Under The Heavens. Sargon believed he ruled The World. Little did he how big The World actually is. His empire however was not small by any means extending to a surface greater than alot of European and African Nations in Today's World. The Akkadian Empire is believed to have ended due to a curse. The Sumerians believe a curse set by Naram-Sin, when he conquered The City of Nippur and demolish The Temple.
Babylon, Capital City of Babylonia; is a staple to the timeline of Ancient Mesopotamia. Babylonia reigned as a Kingdom from 18th Century B.C. to 6th Century B.C. The First Emperor of Babylonia was King Hammurabi. This King's notary come from the fact that he established The first written code of Laws. This system of laws was known as Hammurabi's code or The Code of Hammurabi. The Laws gave clear guidelines on what was legal and illegal and what the punishments were for violating the law. The main rule of thumb was "An Eye for an Eye & a Tooth for a Tooth." This was known as The Law of Retaliation. A few of the crimes and punishments were: Theft which would result in execution, Slander which would result in the cutting of skin or hair, Fraud which would result in the criminal paying the victim tenfold the amount of the fraud & perjury would result in Execution.
The End of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia never really ended in a since. Mesopotamia has many period throughout The Ages. The Stone Age saw Pre Pottery Neolithic A from 10,000 to 8700 B.C., Pre Pottery Neolithic B from 8700 B.C. to 6800 B.C., Jarma from 7500 B.C. to 5000 B.C., Hassuna from around 6000 B.C. to unknown, Sammra from 5700 B.C. to 4900 B.C., Halaf Culture from 6000 B.C. to 5300 B.C., Ubaid period from 5900 B.C. to 4400 B.C., Uruk period from 4400 to 3100 B.C. & Jemdet Nasr period from 3100 B.C. to 2900 B.C. The Early Bronze Age had Early Dynastic period from 2900 B.C. to 2350 B.C., Akkadian Empire from 2350 B.C. to 2100 B.C., Third Dynasty of Ur from 2112 to 2004 B.C. & Early Assyrian Kingdom for 24th century B.C. to the 18th century B.C. The Middle Bronze Age saw Early Babylonia from the 19th century B.C. to the 18th century B.C with this age ending with the Minoan Eruption in 1620 B.C. This eruption is believed to be caused by The Hebrew Exodus from Egypt ' The splitting of the red sea' which would have caused a tsunami to devastate the Minoan civilization. Call divine intervention or just pure luck, but if the story is factual, then this event in history affected more than just The Egyptians. The Late Bronze Age saw The Old Assyrian PEriod from the 16th to 11th century B.C., The Middle Assyrian Period from 1365 to 1076 B.C., The Kassities of Babylon from 1595 B.C. to 1155 B.C. & The Late Bronze Age Collapse from The 12th century B.C. to The 11th Century B.C. The collapse was said to be brought upon by The Sea Peoples who caused the collapse. The Bronze Age collapse affected Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and more civilizations at the times. The Sea People were said to be a naval brigade of sea raiders who sacked and destroyed coastal towns across the mediterranean. One theory on who The Sea Peoples were, were The fleeing Trojans who escaped The destruction of Troy during The Trojan War. As The Trojans made their way to Latania, later Rome, they left a path of destruction wherever they lay siege. More contemporary theories however blame change in climate and fertility of the soil which cause The Bronze Age collapse. The Iron Age saw The Syro-Hittite States from The 11th century B.C. to The 7th century B.C., The Neo-Assyrian Empire from The 10th Century B.C. to The 7th Century B.C. & The Neo-Babylonian Empire from The 7th century B.C. to The 6th century B.C. The Classical World or Classical antiquity period saw Persian Babylonia & Achaemenid Assyria from the 6th century B.C. to The 4th Century B.C., Seleucid Mesopotamia for The 4th century B.C. to The 3rd century B.C., Parthian Babylonia from The 3rd century B.C. to The 3rd century A.D., Osroene from The 2nd century B.C. to The 3rd century A.D., Adiabene from The 1st Century A.D. to The 2nd Century A.D., Hatra from The 1st Century A.D. to The 2nd Century A.D. & The Roman Mesopotamia from The 2nd century A.D. to The 7th century A.D. The Late Antiquity era, the final era, had The Palmyrene Empire for The 3rd Century A.D., The Asoristan from The 3rd century A.D. to The 7th century A.D., Euphartensis from The mid 4th century A.D. to the 7th century A.D. & last but not least The Muslim conquest in The mid-7th Century A.D. The Muslim conquest is seen as the end of Mesopotamia due to the fact of cultural, religious and name change of the area of land. The Traditional Mesopotamian gods were replaced by the god of Islam, Allah. Today's World's Mesopotamia is now called Iraq. Mesopotamia is the cradle of civilization and have inherited maybe aspect of Today's society from Mesopotamia. Western Civilization is even said to have its origins in Mesopotamia. Three of The World's Major Religions, The Abrahamic Religions, Judaism, Christianity & Islam have their origins in this plot of land. The concept of written laws and punitive measures come from Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the bedrock of many of the essential aspects of society of today. Without it, would civilization even have stuck around in the course of human history? We have a lot to be thankful for from The World's First Civilization, Mesopotamia!