The Start of Italy
Italy is a nation located in Southern Europe on The Mediterranean Sea bordering France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and The Holy See. The Capital of Italy is Rome and The Population of Italy is 60,553,000 circa 2020. The Native Language of Italy is Italian which comes from Latin, the original native language of Italy. The most practiced religion in Italy is Roman Catholicism with 83 percent of Italians claiming to be Roman Catholic in 2005; 14 percent of Italians are Atheist/non-religious, 2 percent practice Islam and 1 percent declare other in the same year reported. The currency of Italy is The Euro. Italy has a Gross Domestic Product of 1.88 Trillion USD circa 2020. Italy's government is a Unitary State Constitution Parliamentary Republic, kind of a return to Roman Tradition.
The Start of Italy and its place in Today's World would have to start in a time before its creation. That would Rome before it was The Capital of Italy, was The Superpower of The World. Controlling about all of the Mediterranean and beyond stretching from The British Isles to Egypt and from Spain all the way to Anatolia. Rome is located in The Italian Peninsula and its expanded started with the conquering of this Peninsula. This Peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea is what is Today known as Italy.
The Fall of Rome and The rebirth of Roman excellence
IN 476 A.D., The Roman Empire fell due to political instability and invasion of Germanic tribes known to The Romans as Barbarians. This collapse started what would be know as The Dark Ages, The Middle Ages or The Medieval era. This was a time of Medieval Kings or other such royalty, rallying and warring over the land that was once part of The Roman Empire and the surrounding areas of modern-day Europe. Monarchy and Religious extremism ruled Medieval Europe and the light of knowledge would not belong to the people till a thousand years later when The Renaissance would begin in the same place where that light ended, Italy.
The Kingdom of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy, also known as The Ostrogothic Kingdom was founded in 493 A.D. by The Germanic Ostrogoths with The First King of Italy, Flavius Odoacer. Flavius Odoacer was born in Pannonia, The Roman Empire (modern day Austria), in 431 A.D. Flavius became The First King of Italy in 476 A.D. when he toppled The Emperor of The Roman Empire Romulus Augustus and dissolved The Western Roman Empire, establishing The Kingdom of Italy. King Odoacer would be a client of The Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno but still be The Power of The Kingdom of Italy. Rex Odoacer would reign as The Rex of Italy until 493 A.D. when he when Theodoric had him killed after many campaigns of battle. Theodoric was promised the crown of the Italian peninsula by Emperor Zeno and in 493, The King of Ostrogoths would became The Second King of Italy, Theodoric The Great. The Capital of The Kingdom of Italy was Ravenna till 540 A.D.
King Teja, also known as Teia, Thila, Theia, Thela or Teias, was The Last King of Italy. King Teja would reign as King of Italy till 552 AD after being killed in The Battle of Mons Lactarius; where he would lead a fleet to kill all Roman Senators as an act of revenge for a defeat earlier at Battle of Taginee where King Totila, the king of Italy before him was killed. He also ordered the slaughter of about 300 Roman Kids that were hostages of the previous King. After creating a deal with The Franks in Pavia, he fled to Southern Italy with the support of several military leaders who were under the previous King of Italy, Totila. When he and his army made it to Mount Vesuvius, King Teja was killed in battle at what is known as The Cataclysmic showdown where The Ostrogoths were defeated by The Romans. After the fall of The Final King of Italy, The Ostrogoth people assimilated into boarder Italian Culture and faded into insignificance. The End of The Kingdom of Italy.
IN 535 AD Roman General Justinian declares that all of Italy is a part of The Eastern Roman Empire. This start a war known as The Gothic War, which is fought between The Roman Empire and The Kingdom of Italy until 554 AD where King Teja is killed. This would remain until 568 AD, when the Lombards would invade and take over much of Italy. The Romans would ruled The Ravenna province of Italy while The Lombards who control the Pavia province. The Lombards were a northwestern Germany Germanic tribe. The Lombard's were able to win Italy from The Romans due to it being left defenseless by The Romans after their win against The Kingdom of Italy. In fact, in 569 AD, they crossed over The Julian Alps into northern Italy unopposed by the inattentive Romans. They would capture Pavia in 572 AD. The Lombard Kingdom of Italy would reign until 774 AD. when The Pope, Pope Adrian The First, asked for help from The Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne, just a Frankish King at the time, to take down The Lombards invasion of The Papal States. Charlemagne's army would defeat The Lombard's in The Pavia siege in 773 that lasted one year, which would end the reign of The Lombard Kingdom of Italy. The Lombard's name would remain in Italy till this day in the region of Lombardy.
In 800 AD, Charlemagne would be crowned, King Charlemagne, The First King of The Holy Roman Empire, or The Carolingian Empire. Northern and Central Italy would be in the territory of The Holy Roman Empire. Until the 9th century where the Carolingian Empire would disband, The Holy Roman Empire would continue on however, which will leave behind several Italian States which would rival each other for power and territory.
After this point, all of the action occurs in Southern Italy and The Island of Sicily. In the 11th century, both Southern Italy and Sicily would be control and colonized by The Normans, a Nordic/viking peoples from Northern France in a region which is known today as Normandy.
This would kick off a power struggle called for by The Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII which would start a 200 year conflict in Italy which would end in a Pope Victory in 1250 AD.
96 years later, in 1346, a catastrophic event would begin which would change The World forever. Coming from East and/Or Central Asia; The Black Death, also known as The Black Plague or The Bubonic Plaque would ravage Europe and North Africa beginning in Italy and Sicily. For 7 years, Italy and all of Europe was ravaged by this apocalyptic disease. Religious Zealots claimed it to be a punishment from god and many would whip themselves to atone for sins committed by people who lived in the most religious time period in history, very logical. In the 7 year span of The Black Death 25 million people met their expiration at the hands of the Bubonic Plaque. Through the implementation of quarantines, the plaques grip on Italy and the rest of Europe would cease to hold. This plaque may have brought death and destruction, but in it's wake, the course of history of Italy and The World, would change forever.
Beginning in Florence, Italy around 1300 AD, The Renaissance would be the rebirth (Renaissance means Rebirth in French) of excellence in the arts and sciences for those in the European continent, that was lost when Rome fell almost a millennium earlier. With this new era, The Medieval Times had ended and a new chapter in history would begin, one of many goods and one of many evils. The Renaissance can best be describes as The Rise in European interest in The Classical World's Philosophy, Political Structures, Arts, Ideas, etc. This led to a brand new ideology/philosophy, that was based on Secular Values as opposed to The Scholastic Religious Values on The Medieval Church, known as Humanism. According to the fourth definition presented by The Oxford Dictionary as of 2021, Humanism is "Devotion to those studies which promote human culture; literary culture; esp. the system of the Humanists, the study of the Roman and Greek classics which came into vogue at the Renascence."[sic] and the second definition being "The character or quality of being human; devotion to human interests". This new ideology would put more focus on the human and the material world rather than that of the metaphysical; which would bring about new technologies and better knowledge of The World which would advance humans beyond what those who lived in The Medieval Era would have ever thought possible without Magic. The Renaissance would bring about some of the most famous artist of all time which included Michelangelo, Leonardo Da Vinci, Donatello, Raphael and Giovanni Bellini. Michelangelo would create art such as The Creation Adam, The Sistine Chapel ceiling and The Statue of David; Leonardo Da Vinci would create The Mona Lisa, The Last Supper and The Vitruvian Man; Donatello would create art such as Saint Mark, The Feast of Herod and Cantoria; Raphael would create art such as The School of Athens, Transfiguration and The Disputation of The Holy Sacrament; and Giovanni Bellini woudl create art such as The Feast of The Gods, Christ Blessing and Agony in The Garden.
Leonardo Da Vinci
One of the most famous part of The Renaissance in Italy, is the Medici Family. The Medici family would bring about the high point of The Renaissance. The Medici Family would reign over the city of Florence, Italy most of the Renaissance. Their contributions to The Arts and Humanism with the money made from being bankers and wool merchants would help fund the Renaissance to be as impactful as it was. The order to Renaissance given by the rule of The Medici's would start to fall apart in 1495, when The King of France Charles The Seventh, would invade Italy and push the Medici family from Florence. In 1503, The Center of The Renaissance is moved from Florence, Italy to Rome, Italy; Rome is once again, The Center of The World. In 1527, The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V would sack Rome which would lead to Venice, Italy becoming the center of art. In 1527, The Renaissance would end due to primarily The Protestant Reformation causing conflict in Europe which would see funds given to war efforts as opposed to the arts.
After The Sacking of Rome, The Medici Family was expelled from rule in Florence and in 1528 The French General Odet de Foix Lautrec's army would arrive in Rome to establish control of the peninsula. However, The Aristocrat Admiral Andrea Doria would double-cross The French, which he once was under the service of, in service of The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. A Plaque would take The Aloha from Odet de Foix Lautrec which would destroy most of the French Army, forcing The Pope in 1529 to sign The Treaty of Barcelona, giving Spain control over Italy after 40 years of war. In 1530, The Pope would crown Charles V The King of Italy. In exchange for The Medici's being given back control over Florence, The Pope promised to address the protestant reformation and reform for the church. The Spanish would reinstate The Medici family as the rulers of Florence.
In 1530, Spain would establish complete control of Italy, besides Venice. Most Italian states would remain Independent however, with the exceptions of Sicily, Naples, Milan and Sardinia. Even with the declared control of Italy by Spain, French and Spanish conflict over the rule of Italy would still persist until April 3rd, 1559; where The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis would be agreed upon. This agreement would end a 65 year conflict between the two roaring nations over who would control Italy. Hapsburg Spain would now officially dominate Italy for 150 years.
Austrian and French Italy
IN 1700, The Last Spanish Hapsburg Charles II, would die. This would begin state relations between Italy, Austria, The Spanish Bourbons and The Independent States. This would lead to Austria to become the main power over Italy. This would persist until 1796, when Napoleon invades Italy and establish the Ligurian Republic in 1797 in Genoa, Italy. In 1805, The Ligurian Republic would be incorporated into The French Empire. Italy seemed to be doomed to be ruled as a French state forever, until 1814, when French control over Italy would be overthrown, and a series events that would lead to The Unification of Italy would begin.
The UNIFICATION of Italy
In 1815, The Congress of Vienna, an International Diplomatic Conference meant to restore European Political Order after the fall of The Napoleonic Empire, would establish the boundaries of The European Nations. Venice, Italy is given to Austria in 1815.
Fascism was an ideology invented by Benito Mussolini in 1915. This ideology was forwarded by Mussolini to conquer Italy and make Mussolini the dictator of Italy. Mussolini's main goal was to reestablish the fallen Roman Empire to its former glory. He did this with conquest of former Roman Empire land such as Ethiopia. He would later join Adolf Hitler as allies in the axis powers in World War 2. The Italian People would eventually hung Mussolini and join the allied powers to defeat Nazi Germany and win WWII in Europe.
Today's Italy Capital is Rome and boosts a population of 59.55 Million (2020). Today, Italy is a Unitary State, Parliamentary Constitutional Republic.Today's Italy economy is a diversified industrial economy. The current Leader of Italy is Prime Minister Mario Draghi (2021).
11/16/2022 09:26:19 am
great essay onitaly!
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