Deep in Space is a darkness and despair so deep that even light and Joy cannot escape its grasp. The heavy weight of its force is more than anything in existence can deal with. You cannot see it for it is the king of darkness, the absence of light, the destroyer of all the bring vision to Aloha. All thou can see of it, is the dying light it steals from thy eyes sight. It is a Black Hole.
Supernovae of all types come from either Giant or SuperGiant Stars. A Supernova is a Super Powerful Awesome Space Star Explosion that is beautiful and awe inspiring. New Stars can be created by The Creator Supernova. A Supernova usually gives more than it takes, at least when it ends up becoming a Neutron Star. But what is it called when it takes more than it gives, essentially becoming materialistic and lacking a Transcendent Existential Purpose? Well, it's called a Black Hole.
When The Load on The Supernova is great enough, it will collapse in on itself. When this occurs all light and matter near it cannot escape its gravitational pull. Once you get caught, its over, you are trapped for eternity. There are a load of theorizes of what happens to the light and matter after it is captured varies and we do not know for sure. I will explore multiple theories in separate articles in the future.
A Supernova becoming a Neutron Star is like Virtue. It gives more than it takes and ends up beautiful even after death of its glory, its legacy is sealed. A Black Hole is like Vice, for it consumes all things around it endlessly and to no greater purpose. It captures and keeps all in its grasp for all eternity without relent. This goes to show the difference between Virtue and Vice and the real nature of Freedom. True Freedom is The Freedom to Pursue Virtue while The Freedom to commit Vice is not Freedom, for Vice imprisons the individual and the collective.
All of The World since the dawn of man have look into Space and awed at its Awesome wonder. The Curiosity of what it emcompasses has intriqued man to want to travel and explore throughout its vastness. One thing though stops us from freely flying through it.
Gravity is the force that attracts mass to other mass. Gravity is what keeps us from freely roaming The Universe, observing countless Astronomical wonders. We have left Earth before and currently, but at the cost of a lot of currency and power. Free Fall acceleration rate or in layman's terms, Gravitational Rate, is 9.81 Meters per second every second or 9.8 m/s^2. Gravity is something we cannot escape; unless we aren't around anything in pure space. But Why?
All Worlds, Rocks, People, Animals, or anything with Mass has its own force of gravity. That's right, if thou art in the middle of space and an apple, which has less mass than thee, will in theory revolve around thy gravity, or stick to thee. The reason? SpaceTime.
SpaceTime is the combination of the three dimensional Space and one dimensional time, together to form the fabric of all of The Universe. Now when something with mass is within a particular part of SpaceTime, SpaceTime will bend to that mass. This is what causes gravity. Imagine thou hath a blanket spread out in the air held by a few folks evenly. Now put a bowling ball in the middle of said blanket. It will bend. Now put a tennis ball anywhere on the blanket away from the bowling ball. What happens? Well the tennis ball will fall towards the bowling ball since the bowling ball has more mass than the tennis ball. This is exactly how gravity works in relation to SpaceTime and mass.
SpaceTime reveals to use the more mass thou hast, the more attractive thou literally are. For us, this mass, can mean Status, Money, Muscles, Good looks, Nice things or even great social skills. Regardless these things attract others to us, just like gravity is an attractive force. The more of this thou hath, the more attractive thou shalt be. Now is this a good thing? I'll let you decide that one.
Speeding Icy celestial objects that pass by the Sun, heat up and release gas or as we like to come them, Comets. Comets are an astronomical phenomenon that captures our imagination and puts us at awe. The release of gas from comets is a process known as outgassing. Comets have coma, which are the nebulous envelopes of a Comet, that when it starts to heat up produces a tail which forms a comet.
Where they come from
Comets can come from multiple sources. One source is The Kuiper Belt. These comets are called Short-period Comets. Comets that originate from The Oort Cloud are titled Long-period Comets. Any Comets that are from outside The Solar System are called Exocomets, just like Planets outside The Solar System are known as exoplanets.
Where they go
Three things can happen to comets. Departure (ejection) from The Solar System, Volatiles exhausted & Breakups and Collisions. Departure or ejection from The Solar System is when either The Comets just leaves The Solar System in its cycle or is thrown out due to strong gravity.Volatiles exhausted Comets are those who fade away overtime. Breakups and Collisions are what they say they are, Breakups are when the comets breaks apart and no longer is a comet and a collision is when the comet collides which another form of solid matter, halting its path indefinitely.
Hast thou ever seen a shooting star at night? Hath thou make a wish to said star. Did it come true? Well even if your wish did come true, I hate to break it to you, but you weren't wishing to a falling star. You made a wish to a Meteoroid.
Meteoroids are rocks in space that tend to sometimes hang out in the asteroid belt. It is not an Asteroid however for it is smaller than an asteroid. The difference between Asteroids and Meteoroids is hazy but the working scale for meteoroids is that its measurement are from 100 micrometers to 33 feet across. Not very large alot in terms of Astronomical objects are concerned. If an object of the same substance falls under these limits are classified as micrometeoroids or interplanetary dust. The substance that meteoroids consist of are nickel(ni) and Iron(fe). Meteoroids come in three leagues; Iron, Stone and Stony-Iron.
Meteors are what you make a wish to at night. No a shooting star is not a star, but a meteor. I know, bummer right? Meteors are meteoroids, the difference is that its gleaming and luminous. Meteors are not only Meteoroids but are likewise Asteroids, Comets and micrometeoroids. Oh and I almost forgot to mention, a meteor, in order to be classified as a Meteor, has to gain entrance into Earth's atmosphere. This is why meteors are also called falling stars, since they are literally falling into Earth. Back when Earth was young and with Aloha, meteors would constantly collide with Earth which formed carters on Earth that we see today. One theory behind I most famous satellite, The Moon, is that i was once a Meteor that hit Earth and became a Moon, or that a meteor hit Earth, broke off a piece of it and formed Luna; The Moon. Also The mass extinction of The Dinosaurs was to believed to be caused by an Asteroids which entered Earth's Atmosphere, i.e. a Meteor.
A lot of things we see in the night sky are absolutely marvelous and spectacular. One of those things is a Meteor Shower. The Action in the sky known as a Meteor Shower is when a conglomeration of meteors radiate and stream across the sky. The Meteors typically come from Comets whose pieces were torn off and pulled into Earth's Atmosphere. This causes quite the spectacle to see.
A meteorite, like a Meteor enters Earth's atmosphere all the same, the only deviation being that a Meteorite actually strikes The Earth's surface. As was said earlier about Early Earth, The Moon and Dinosaurs, these events were not by all meteors but more pointedly all meteorites. Not all meteors hit Earth, but by definition, all meteorites hit Earth; otherwise it wouldn't be called a meteorite but just a meteor.
So let's go over it in summary one more time. A Meteoroids is like an Asteroids, just not as big. A Meteor can be a Meteoroids or asteroid or comet but it enter Earth atmosphere. Finally a Meteorite is a Meteor, but the difference is it makes it to the Earth's Surface; glad to clear that up simply. For every million square kilometers on Earth, 36 to 166 meteorites larger than 10 grams hit Earth every year. A weird thing to think about since we never really hear about it. It happen a lot even though 90 to 95 present of Meteors never even become Meteorites. We often think that we are safe from space stuff here on Earth, that nothing from space can kill us. But, to put it directly, we are not are sure of our safety from space as we think. Our days are numbered nonetheless and unless we have an execution date set for us, we simply do not know when that count will reach to zero. Knowing this, we should not live our lives as though it were a commodity; and we should not seek endless pleasure with bread and circuses; but that we should in fact live with a purpose. We should live to create a legacy for ourselves and leave a mark on this Earth. This gives us reason in life and even if we die unexpectedly, we do not die with regret for we hath lived a purposeful and fulfilling life.
Nebulae name is rooted in Latin, it translates to Gas or Cloud. This would accurately describe a Nebula. A Nebula is in fact a Gas and Cloud in Space. So is a Star however, so what makes a Nebula different? Well to put it into more specific meaning, a Nebula is a gossamer cloud of gas and dust in interstellar space. It can have a range of some hundreds of light years. These Astronomical articles are not small by any means of the measure I do declare. On the conjury, Nebulae are beyond colossal in stature. I would dare to say, thou would not want to drive in this fog, thou would not be able to see the road clearly for thy entire life, even at light speed. The clouds on Earth have nothing on these odysseys. A few Nebulae we know of are The Eagle Nebula, Crab Nebula, Ring Nebula, Orion Nebula, Helix Nebula, Dumbbell Nebula, Horsehead Nebula, Omega Nebula, Lagoon Nebula, Eskimo Nebula, Veil Nebula, North America Nebula, Coalsack Nebula, Saturn Nebula, Pelican Nebula, Owl Nebula, Boomerang Nebula, Egg Nebula, Lemon Slice Nebula, Medusa Nebula, Ghost Nebula, Iris Nebula, Crescent Nebula & Flame Nebula. There are an estimated 3000 Nebulae in The Universe.
The Origin of Nebulae
Nebulae come from The Explosion of dying stars. These explosions come from Supernovae.
Nebulae after being created become a space for star creation. A Nebulae becomes Star Nurseries.
Nebulae come from the explosions of dying stars. Nebulae in turn become the birthplace of new stars. It's like a Hydra, thou cut off one head, two more grow in its place; except in a Nebula, more than two stars are born. This cycle is similar to life's cycle of life, death and rebirth. Except maybe the order is a little different. One lives, one gives new birth to another or others than one dies.
Black Dwarfs, don't exist, yet. At this time they are theoretical. This is because the it would take for a White Dwarf to cool down to become a Black Dwarf trillions of years. See the problem here? The Universe is only 13.8 Billion Years. There just hasn't been enough time alloted for this astronomical event to occur. So we're about 986 Billion Years off, for this to happen. IN all honesty, even more than that since this 986 Billion number comes from subtracting 13.8 billion out of 1 trillion. Earlier it was stated that it takes trillions of years for a White Dwarf to become a Black Dwarf. Plus this doesn't take into account the time it takes for a Star to become even a White Dwarfs. There are several steps taken before even that occurs. Protostar, Tauri Star, Main Sequence Star (Sun-Like Star size), then Red Giant, then Planetary Nebula and finally White Dwarf. That takes a long time. Even the Red Dwarf that skips straight into a White Dwarf still takes time to do. So we are nowhere close to observing a Black Dwarf, at least not in our Universe.
A Black Dwarf
Saying all this, the next question is begging to be asked. What exactly is a Black Dwarfs and what does it do?
Not much is known due in being a theory, but the theory states that this stage in a Stars life is when a White Dwarf no longer pushes heat or luminosity, it will become invisible to the naked-eye. It will effectively be Black(the absence of light). It'll take special technology in order to even see it. This won't be impossible since recently a photo of a Black Hole, which light can't escape from its gravity, was taken.
It's crazy to think that something in the Astronomy core doesn't even exist yet. This should not surprise us however, for there was a point in time where we didn't even exist yet. Just because it doesn't exist now, doesn't mean it will in the future. This theory is a good one nonetheless. Why? Well, what happens when your in a room with no windows or openings and you turn the light off? Blackness. This would apply to something in space that doesn't emit or reflect light. Tell me, what is the color of space, not the object itself, but space? Exactly my point. It may be a theory now, but there is good reason to believe it will exist one day and someday, we may be able to observe it!
Many things happen to Stars after they die depending on their size. There are Supernovas, Black Holes, Planetary Nebulae, Neutron Stars, Black Dwarfs and White Dwarfs. White Dwarfs, also known as a degenerate star, is a dense ( density equal to that of H2O water times 1 Million) stellar core remnant that is near its end. White Dwarfs are mostly made of electron degenerate matter. Their mass is that near to The Sun. White Dwarfs want to become Neutron Stars, but simply do not have what it takes, the mass, to become a Neutron Star.
White Dwarfs are recognized for their White Color that they illuminate. It gets its color from the emissions of their stored energy. Fusion does not occur in a White Dwarf, i.e. part of why it is also called a Degenerate Star.
No gravity necessary
Most stars dead or alive, are supported against their own gravity via normal gas pressure; not White Dwarfs however. Instead White Dwarfs are supported by the degenerative pressure of their electron gas within their interior. Degeneracy pressure is an increased resistance exercised by electrons making up the gas, this is a result of stellar contraction.
Composition of a White Dwarf
White Dwarf's centers are made of a blend of both the elements Carbon and Oxygen. Around its center is a thin layer of helium; and a fine layer of hydrogen in most situations. Some White Dwarfs with actually have, though this is rare, have a thin carbon envelope.
Where do White dwarfs come from?
A Star that is initially 3 to 4 Solar Masses will become a White Dwarfs. This sometimes can be a higher number but typically the star is 3 to 4 Solar Masses. Stars that can become a White Dwarfs are Sun-Like Stars, Red Giants, Red Dwarfs & Planetary Nebulae. Our Sun will eventually become a White Dwarfs but first The Sun will expand and become a Red Giant. After this it will become a Planetary Nebulae. Over time, the mass of The Sun will wither away and The Planetary Nebula Sun will become a White Dwarf.
Examples of White Dwarfs
A few examples of White Dwarfs Stars are Sirius (The Brightest Star seen on Earth), Sirius A, IK Pegasi, Wolf 489, NN Serpentis, PSR J0348+0432, Procyon B & Lambda Boötis. There are currently believed to be 8 White Dwarfs in space.
A Brown Dwarf, also known as a Failed Star, is a mass in space that is in between being labeled a Star or a Planet. This does not mean that a Brown Dwarf is small by any means of the measure, for a Brown Dwarf, while the size of 0.075% that of The Sun it is still as big as 75 Jupiter-sized planets. To be specifics a Brown can be from 2.5e+28 Kilograms to 1.5e+28 Kilograms. Examples of Brown Dwarfs are Upsilon Andromedae, Gliese 229, CT Chamaeleontis, Epsilon Indi & Xi Ursae Majoris B.
Failure of a star
What makes a Brown Dwarf a "failed star" is the fact that they do not retain a stable luminosity by thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen. Both Stars and Brown Dwarfs start off with their cores contracting and fusing hydrogen, achieving higher temperature. The difference comes later on when The Brown Dwarf ceases to contract due to their cores being dense enough to pause things with electron degeneracy pressure. For Brown Dwarfs the size above 60 Jupiters, will come to stabilize and fusion of hydrogen will halt.
The Name Brown Dwarf
Brown Dwarfs, despite their name, are not the color brown. Brown Dwarfs are actually a deep red or magenta color. Once Upon A Time, Brown Dwarf were titled Black Dwarfs, but it was later changed to Brown Dwarf, since it's actually color was reddish, but the title Red Dwarf was already taken, so Brown Dwarf became its new name.
Afterlife of Brown Dwarf
Brown Dwarf don't really die like other stars do, Brown Dwarfs simply remain Brown Dwarfs eventually cooling down more & more over time.
Some things in life never begin, sometimes they begin well and then never come into being. Either by chance or by lack of effort doth this occur. Brown Dwarfs being failed stars represents this well. If you do not get up and work at something, thou shalt suffer the same fate as a Brown Dwarf. Do not be stagnant in life, but move and improve thyself and thou can reach the stars!
Giant are among us in The Universe. The Giant Stars overpower in size that of The Sun bigtime. The Giant Stars themselves though, are not even the biggest, for they are too overpowered in size by Super Giants! Supergiants are as big as it gets, becoming so big that they either become Supernovae, Neutron Stars or Black Holes. There are two types of Supergiants, Red Supergiants and Blue Supergiants. Just like Giants are split into Blue and Red, so are Supergiants!
Blue Super Giant
Blue Supergiants are blue, of course, are extremely fierce in the sense of high temperatures and have a very high luminosity. In fact that are around 10,000 to One Million times brighter than The Sun. Blue Supergiants have a surface temperature of 10,000 Kelvin to 50,000 Kelvin or 9727 degrees Celsius to 49727 degrees Celsius or 17540 degrees Fahrenheit to 89540 degrees Fahrenheit. For a Main Sequence Star to become a Blue Supergiants it has to fit the following criteria: 10-300 Solar Mass ( A Solar Mass is equal to 1.989e+30 Kilograms, 4.385e+30 Pounds, 2.192e+27 Us Tons or 1.989e+27 Metric Tons) and be an O class or B class star (a B type star is a yellow star similar to The Sun, an O type Star is blue-white star with the spectral type O and are 10,000 to 1 Million times the size of The Sun.). These stars will evolve from their main sequence state and compose of heavier elements and expand continuously. Four examples of Blue Supergiants are UW Canis Major, Rigel, Zeta Puppis & MACS J1149 Lensed Star 1 also known as Icarus.
Red Super Giant
Larger than Blue Supergiants are Red Supergiants. Red Supergiants, by volume, are the biggest stars in The Universe. Their luminosity class is spectre type K or spectre type M. Despite their size, Red Giants are relatively cold compared to other stars, with a surface temperature falling below 4100 Kelvin (3827 degrees Celsius or 6920 degrees Fahrenheit). The Mass of Red Supergiants are 10 Solar Masses to 40 Solar Masses (1.989e+31 Kilograms to 7.956e+31 Kilograms, 4.385e+31 pounds to 1.754e+32 Pounds, 2.192e+28 US tons to 8.77e+28 US tons, 1.989e+28 Metric Tons to 7.956e+28 Metric Tons). Red Supergiants have a Solar Radius (R) of 264R to 303R (1.837e+8 Kilometers to 2.108e+8 Kilometers or 1.141e+8 Miles to 1.31e+8 Miles). One other characteristic of Red Supergiants are their slow rotational patterns. The minimum rotation velocity of a Red Supergiant is 5 km/s (Kilometers per second) This is still faster than a bullet, but compared to other stars, this velocity is relatively slow. Betelgeuse, a Red Supergiant, for example takes around 30 Earth Years to complete a entire rotation. Other examples of Red Supergiants are VY Canis Majoris, Mu Cephei & KW Sagittarii.
Supergiants, Red & Blue become Supernovae when they die. One example of a Supernovae that was once a Blue Supergiant is Supernova 1987A who is a Type 2 Supernova.
What Supergiants and giants teach us is that, there is always someone bigger and better than the one who is bigger and better than thee. Even Giant Stars, themselves larger in their own respect, are dwarfed in comparison to Supergiants. However, being bigger isn't always an advantage. Red Supergiants for example are slower than other stars by a significant margin. This is true for all thing, living or nonliving.
The Sun is The Power of The Solar System! Without The Sun we on Earth wouldn't even be alive! The Energy from The Sun is what makes life on Earth possible. No Sun, no life. Now there are many stars in The Universe that come in a wide variety different from The Sun, but there are also stars like our sun. They are called Sun-Like Stars.
Sun-like Stars are also known as Solar analog or Solar-type Stars. Solar-Type Stars are a Main-Sequence star that have Yellow color. On the B-V Color Index it has a range of .48 and .80. The Sun is a .68 on the B-V Color Index. Examples of Solar-Type Stars are The Sun, Alpha Centaurus A, Delta Pavonis, Tau Ceti & 72 Herculis.
Solar Analogs are like The Sun photometrically. This means that light and luminosity of The Sun and Solar Analog Stars are similar. Solar Analog Stars are a temperature of 5278 Kelvin to 6278 Kelvin or 5005 degrees Celsius to 6005 degrees Celsius or 9041 degrees Fahrenheit to 10839 degrees Fahrenheit. This is within 500 Kelvin (227 degrees Celsius or 440 degrees Fahrenheit) from the temperature of The Sun. Example of Solar Analog Stars are The Sun, Sigma Draconis, 51 Pegasi, 61 Virginis, 47 Ursae Majoris, 20 Leonis Minoris, Alpha Mensae and Psi Serpentis.
A Solar Twin is a Star that is almost identical to The Sun hence the word twin. A Clone of The Sun hypothetically would be a G2V Star with a surface temperature of 5,778 Kelvin or 5505 degrees Celsius or 9941 degrees Fahrenheit. A Clone Star to The Sun would also have to be 4.603 Billion Years old (The Age of The Sun). To this date there hath not been a Clones of The Sun discovered. This does not mean it isn't out there in Space, but we have not observe one yet. Now a Star does not need to be a Clone of The Sun to be considered a Solar Twin, twins in the human species don't have the exact everything. To be considered a Solar Twin thou must be 50 Kelvin from The Sun (-223.15 degrees Celsius or -369.67 degrees Fahrenheit). The temperature range then is 5728 Kelvin to 6728 Kelvin (5455 to 6455 degrees Celsius or 9851 to 11651 degrees Fahrenheit). The Age of a Solar Twin is also 1 Billion years from the age of The Sun, older or younger. This means The Stars age must be between 3.6 giga-annum to 5.6 giga-annum. A giga-annum is a term used to describe a Billion Years, so 1 Billion equals 1 giga-annum; abbreviated Ga. Another term for a Solar Twin is a HabStar; Habitable Star. These stars, being so similar to The Sun, have the potential to house planets in its orbit that can support life like Earth does. To be considered a HabStar a star must be a Main Sequence Star, have the capability of maintain terrestrial planet in it orbit, have a age of at least 3 giga-annums, does not have a Stellar Companion Star, Support a stable habitable zone, and be not vary on its state of being. One Star that matches this criteria is HIP 11915 which is 185.53 Light Years from Earth. Examples of Solar Twins are The Sun, 18 Scorpii, Kepler-452, HD 150248 & HD 101364.
There is a lot of different astronomical objects in The Universe. There is even a multitude of different types of Stars. However, there are stars there are like our Sun. These Sun-Like Stars are all over the cosmos and they behave and look like The Sun, some may even have a planet orbiting it that contains life! We too, vary like the stars in the night sky and this might make us feel isolated and alone. Even if there are clones of us, like The Sun not having clones, this does not mean that we are alone in The World. There are hundred if not thousands or millions of people who have the same interest, look similar and act just like us. People with similar lifestyles and similar experience that we can find community and fellowship in. Finding these people is a key component of living a healthy life. When we find people who hold our same values, interest and experiences, we feel better about ourselves and key feature of human survival is found. Remember, no man is an island.
Neutron Stars are star that are formed by the collapse of a Supernova Explosion from a Massive Star. Besides Black holes, Neutron Stars are the smallest and densest star in The Universe. Neutron Star have been called White Holes in fact; hypothetically, also they have been called quark stars and strange stars. A Neutron Star no longer generates its own heat and chills overtime. This does not mean that a Neutron Star is safe to walk on however, for an average Neutron Star is around 600,000 Kelvin or 599727 degrees Celsius or 1.1 Million degrees Fahrenheit. Definitely not safe to walk on, unless you want you feet to melt. A Neutron Star has a mass 1.5 times that of The Sun. However its radius is 10 Kilometers or 6.2 Miles. This means that runner running a Marathon will have ran around a Neutron Star a little over 4 times. This small size combined with the large mass means that the gravity on a Neutron Star is very high. A good analogy is a sugar cube thou put in thy cup of joe would weigh one hundred million tons on a Neutron Star. Now that's what I call some strong coffee.
Every Star that is 8 times the Mass of The Sun has the possibility of becoming a Neutron Star one day in its lifecycle, or deathcycle technically. Before these Massive Star become Neutron Stars, they must go through one step. A Giant Star must first become a Supernova before it is to be a Neutron Star. More specifically it must become a Type 1B Supernova, Type 1C Supernova or a Type 2 Supernova. A Neutron Star forms from a highly swift rotational speed that overtime slows down to become a Neutron Star. There are times that Neutron Stars will have a glitch occur. A Glitch is a spontaneous and small increase in speed. This occurs due to a Starquake. Starquakes are just like Earthquakes, which rock the surface of the star causing the release of energy via seismic waves. There are also times where a Neutron Star will experience an Anti-Glitch which is a sudden decrease in the rotational speed.
Neutron Star that have a mass greater than 3 M will eventually collapse on its own weight and become Black Holes. This is the of the Neutron Star.
The Solar System we live in is vast and Spacious and has a World of spectacular astronomical objects that would take eons just to count up it all. Now imagine a system of solar systems, that my pisano, would be a Galaxy. A Galaxy is system of stars, dust, interstellar gas, star remnants, dark matter and more gravitationally bound together in the reaches of space. A galaxy can have billions of stars, star are big, so billions of them is quite the formittable size to imagine in the mind. Our Sun alone, which isn't even considered a big star by astronomical standards can fit 1.3 Million Earths inside of it. The amount galaxies in The Universe is estimated to be Two Trillion Galaxies! To put that into perspective even more, the average human will live for 22 Million seconds, that means if you were to count one star per second in your entire life, you wouldn't even come close to counting them all!. The Universe is often larger than we think. Even just counting all of the stars within a galaxy per second would be impossible in the average human lifespan. Hard to imagine all of these things in Space once being compacted into one Primeval Atom.
Even though there are more galaxies estimated to exist than we can count, there are some that hath been named. Here are some of the galaxies we have named. The Draco Galaxy (Draco dwarf), The Milky Way Galaxy (our galaxy), Andromeda Galaxy, Cartwheel Galaxy, Comet Galaxy, Fireworks Galaxy, Medusa Merger, Whirlpool Galaxy, Cigar Galaxy, Sombrero Galaxy, Pinwheel Galaxy, Sunflower Galaxy, Backward Galaxy, Large Magellanic Cloud, Virgo Stellar Stream, Canis Major Dwarf & Baby Boom Galaxy.
Types of Galaxies
Not all galaxies look the same. There are four different types of galaxies in The Universe. The Four types of galaxies are Elliptical Galaxy, Spiral Galaxy, barred spiral Galaxy & irregular Galaxy. Our Galaxy, The Milky Way Galaxy, is itself a Spiral Galaxy. A Spiral Galaxy is, according to The Oxford dictionary, "a galaxy in which the stars and gas clouds are concentrated mainly in one or more spiral arms.". A Spiral Galaxy is probably the most recognizable galaxy out of the rest. Other example of Spiral Galaxy are Andromeda Galaxy, Whirlpool Galaxy, Pinwheel Galaxy, Sombrero Galaxy and Comet Galaxy. An Elliptical Galaxy is that comprises of an ellitiod shape that is dim and almost emits an featureless image in space. An ellipsoid shape looks like the image of the cosmic microwave background. An example of an Elliptical Galaxy is Messier 87. A Barred Spiral Galaxy is like a Spiral Galaxy except that it has a bar-shaped center structure that is made with stars. Examples of barred shaped galaxies are The Milky Way Galaxy (our galaxy), Andromeda Galaxy, Virgo Stellar Stream and Triangulum Galaxy.
Center of a Galaxy
Stars have a ton of mass and gravity. So thou can imagine the gravity that is contained in a Galaxy. It takes are good amount of mass to hold that together. So what is holding all the matter together? What is in the middle of a galaxy? Well what in The Universe has so much gravity that it collapse into itself, taking everything close to it with it? A Black Hole of course. Scientist believe that at the center of every Galaxy in The Universe, is a Black Hole. What else can hold all of this stuff together? Definitely isn't Earth.
Knowledge accumulate overtime through generation passing down of knowledge and books or other media. There are trillions of galaxies yes, will we name them all in our lifetime; probably not; does that mean our species never will? Not necessarily. Do not let the fact that you may not know all there is about The Universe make you quit your curiosity and yearning for knowledge. What good is it to know everything in The World? For if there is nothing new to learn, what is the point of exploration or curiosity. A major factor in human evolution overtime was curiosity and the thirst for knowing more. Without this key feature, what makes us human is lost. Do not yearn to know it all, but to learn as much as you want of what you want, and then pass that knowledge on to the next generation. This is a key survival instinct in humans that put us at the top in The World.
The Oort Cloud also known as The Trans Neptunian Region is The Solar System's outer shell that covers the outermost part of it. The Oort cloud is collection of icy astronomical objects that form a sort of a spherical cloud around The Solar System.
The Edge of The Solar System
Discovered in 1950 The Oort Cloud is the farthest astronomical object in The Solar System from The Sun, with the nearest point of The Oort Cloud being 2000 Astronomical Units (AU) or 2.992e+11 Kilometers from The Sun! Too put that into perspective, Pluto is only 39.5 Astronomical Units from The Sun. The nearest point of The Oort Cloud is about 51 times further away from The Sun than Pluto! That's not the craziest part however . The Farthest point of The Oort Cloud is estimated at most to be 200,000 Astronomical Units from The Sun! Which means it would take 3.16 Light Years to get from The Sun to outside The Oort Cloud! A light year is the distance traveled going light speed for one Earth Year. That's a really long time! Even three years is a long time to travel by human standards. This means that The Oort cloud in total at highest estimates, is 198,000 Astronomical Units spaced out. That's 99 times larger than the part of The Solar System inside The Oort Cloud! Talk about putting things into perspective.
Things that make The Oort Cloud
There is estimated to be,within the boundaries of what is The Oort Cloud about 2 Trillion objects. Some of the ice in fact is as old as The Solar System itself. Scientist Today suspect that the long orbiting comets of our solar system originate from The Oort Cloud. Though this is theoretical due to the fact that it has never been observed to originate from The Oort Cloud.
The Oort is believed to contain Planetesimals. Planetesimals are made from Rocks, dust and other things in The Universe. These Planetesimals can be described as being small celestial bodies formed when a planet is being born. The debris of the proto planets is what forms the Planetesimals. Planetesimals are can be anywhere from a good amount of meters to hundreds of Kilometers but are too small to get an exact measurement.
The Oort shows that there is much more than what meets the eye. When one thinks of The Solar System, they think of The Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, The Moons, Mars, The Asteroid Belt, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and sometimes the Kuiper Belt. What they fail to realize is that isn't all the of The Solar System, its not even The Majority of The Solar System, it is actually quite small compared to what the outside , The Oort Cloud. The Oort makes the common mind solar system look like a tic tac amongst Thousands of chess pieces. We must always think to ourselves that, while yes, our thoughts can be big, that there is a wider scope that we might be missing. The Oort cloud is a great example of this, for The Oort cloud isn't thought of much when thinking about The Solar System, but really, it is The Solar System when we account for size differential. Same thing with our thoughts and ideas. we might have a great idea, but have we considered if there are a million ideas that might actually work better? Let us expand our minds and encompass more ideas and concepts and we may find answers to questions we may not have even known we have been looking for. This is how we grow and have grown since we were hunter gatherers in The Ice Age and Stone Age. Expand thy reach and soon, a whole new world might be available to thee that thou hast not even dreamed of seeing.
Star comes in a variety of different types. Not every Star is like The Sun, some are smaller and some are Giants. These Giants are legendary due to the unimaginable size they encompass. These Juggernaut Stars make our Sun look like a Rookie. There are even bigger Stars that are called Supergiants. Today though, we shall just discuss Giants.
Red Giants are gigantic, towering over and even over encompassing our own star, The Sun. These Stars are hot as hell! Red Giants have an average temperature of 5000 Kelvin, 4727 degrees Celsius or 8540 degrees Fahrenheit! Forget about getting a sunburn from this star, thou shalt receive a sun melt instead if not a sun vanish. This star however is in its late-stages of life. This star is about to die either becoming a Blue Giant than a Neutron Star, A Supernova than a Neutron Star, or a Planetary Nebula than a White dwarf. One day, our own Sun will become a Red Giant. This Star continues to expand, consuming anything in its path until one of the previously mentioned outcomes occur. This all happens because The Star's supply of Hydrogen atoms in the core have run out. This begins the imperial-like expansion of the star. This causes the star to become brighter due to its larger size than before. 3 famous Red Giants are Alpha Tauri, Alpha Bootis & Gamma Crucis.
Blue Giants are rare as far as is known in Today's World. Blue Giants are Luminous and sizzling. Blue Giants however are not really a type of star as so much as a stage of a star. Blue Giants are evolved stars that have extensively lost its supply of hydrogen within its core. Eventually it will become a Red Giant and continues its path to death. An Example of a Blue Giant is The Blue Giant, Alcyone.
Whether a Blue Giant or Red Giant there are bigger stars out there in space than The Sun. We once thought that The Sun was the big boss in The Universe but that theory was squished overtime and now we know it isn't even close to being the biggest baddest star. This is a good lesson for us to understand for ourselves. That we should be humble and not believe we are the best in the world at a particular thing. The Old saying goes, that there is always someone bigger and tougher than thou art. This seems to be an universal truth that applies to more than just us humans. We should strive to be better versions of ourselves and not become static in our progress thinking that we are the best in the world; for eventually, voluntarily or involuntarily, we will be humbled and put in our place. Keep moving and getting better each and everyday and become the best version of yourself that thou can be. Do this, and thou shalt Thrive!
A SuperNova is a Super Powerful Stellar Explosion of Awesome magnitude! The Explosion is so Super Awesome, that it is in fact the largest Explosion in Space! Many elements that we see in The Universe are created by SuperNovae; but what creates a Supernova? A Giant death.
The Demise of a The Giant
A Supernova can never come from a Star like our Sun, no it must come from a Giant Star or even a Super Giant Star! A Supernova can come from either a Red Giant, Red Supergiant, Blue Giant or Blue Supergiant. All these Stars are very different, therefore there are more than one type of Supernova. There is a Type 1 Supernova, which comes from a Blue Supergiant and then there is a Type 2 Supernova, which comes from the other giants.
Type 1 Supernova
A Type 1 Supernova is split into three categories, Type 1A Supernova, Type 1B Supernova & Type 1C Supernova. A Type 1A Supernova is a Supernova that has a Strong ionized silicon absorption line. An absorption line is a proclivity of a lower temperature atmospheric gas to intake the equivalent lines of light. Type 1A Supernovae are close to being peak light! Type 1A Supernovae is considered Thermal runaway. Thermal runaway is when a white dwarf star gathers up enough astronomical material from Stellar Companion/ Binary Star to boost its core temperature which will create carbon fusion. This carbon fusion will Start-off runaway nuclear fusion. This believed to be The Creator of a Type 1A Supernova. Type 1B Supernovae are Supernovae that show non-ionized Helium. These Helium lines are neutral. Type 1B is considered Core Collapse. Core Collapse is when Massive Stars, such as Blue Supergiants, Red Supergiants, Blue Giants and Red Giants, core collapses due to the gravity of the nuclear fusion within it. As thou might know, this phenomenon can result in two outcomes usually, Black Holes or a Super Massive Explosion! The only Supernova where Core Collapse does not ensue prior to its inception is a Type 1A Supernova, which explain earlier is from Thermal runaway. Type 1C Supernovae have a weak to no helium and a weak to no silicon absorption feature; Type 1B Supernovae have this second feature as well. Type 1C Supernova also come from Core Collapse of a Massive Star. Type 1C Supernovae can be created by Blue Supergiants.
Type 2 Supernova
Type 1 Supernovae do not show Hydrogen while Type 2 Supernovae show Hydrogen. Type 2 Supernovae are split as well as Type 1 Supernovae into seperate categories that describe the different characteristics of the particular Supernova. The different types of Type 2 Supernovae are Type 2P Supernovae, Type 2L Supernovae, Type 2n Supernovae & Type 2B Supernovae. Type 2P Supernovae are Supernovae that hath a flat stretch known as a plateau that decline in lumosity. This brightness in the Supernovae declines slower that Type 2L Supernovae. Type 2P Supernovae comes from Core Collapse of a Massive Star. Type 2L Supernovae has a steady and slow linear decline in lumosity, not a slow as Type 2P Supernovae, but still slow nonetheless. This decline in light occurs at its peak lumosity. Type 2L Supernovae are created by Core Collapse of a Massive Star just like the previous Supernovae discussed. Both Type 2P Supernovae and Type 2L Supernovae lack narrow lines completely. This is unlike Type 2n Supernovae who in fact have some narrow lines. The 'n' in fact has a purpose in stating that this particular Supernovae (Type 2n Supernova) has a few narrow lines. These lines that are spoke of are lines of hydrogen emissions; hence it being a part of the broader spectrum of Type 2 Supernovae. One way to describe a Type 2n Supernova is an Extremely Energetic Supernova. Type 2n Supernovae also come from a Core Collapse of a Massive Star. Type 2b Supernovae have weak hydrogen lines in its starting spectrum. Eventually though Type 2B Supernovae hydrogen lines become undetectable. Type 2 Supernovae can come from Blue Supergiants, Red Giants, Blue Giants & Red Supergiants.
Afterlife of The Supernova
Supernovae can end in many spectacular ways. Type 1 Supernovae can become a Stellar Nursery. A Stellar Nursery is a plot in Space where dense nebula/nebulae condenses and contracts gas and dust becoming The Creator of Stars in that area. Type 2 Supernova that were previously Blue Supergiants will become Black Holes eventually. Type 2 Supernovae that come from Blue Giants or Red Giants will become Neutron Stars.
Just like Stars, Supernovae come in a broad array of different breeds. Like most of space, the vast spread of different type of astronomical objects come in countless varieties. Supernovae might be considered the most beautiful and Awesome of all of these Space objects. This shows that destroying some old and past its time can create something new and more spectacular than before with elements of the old that make a marvelous spectacle to witness. We too can do the same. If something old is no longer working for thee, change what thou art commencing in life. Keep elements of the old so thou does not lose thy identity completely, but adapt to current situation and become a better more brighter version of thyself, just like a Star becoming, a Supernova!
Today, we will discuss space not in the Astronomy sense, but more of the Sci Fi areas around it. This includes Planet X, Aliens, UFOs, Flying Saucers and more. Nothing in here should be taken too seriously and this will be more of a fun topic. Disclaimer, all these things may or may not exist, as of now, it does not, but is subject to change in the near and/or far future.
Planet X is the undiscovered 10th planet in The Solar System. In 2005 NASA claims to have found a tenth planet the size of if not a bit bigger than Pluto. The distance of this planet from The Sun was an estimated 10 Billion Millions! However, I could not find any further information about this particular planet anywhere I looked; strange to say the least. Traditionally, Planet X was thought to be a planet that would one day come straight for Earth and destroy it! Another name for this planet was Nibiru. As cool as this sounds, this is a work of complete fiction and has no basis in any actual scientific knowledge.
Aliens, UFOs and other unearthly things have in the mind of man since man has looked to the stars. UFO's are Unidentified Flying Objects commonly correlated with Flying Saucers. These Flying Saucers are believed to hold Aliens. There many different types of Aliens believed to exist and claimed to have even been witnessed. The most famous of these Aliens are The Greys. The Greys are described as 3 to 4 foot Humanoid Aliens with Grey Skin and big black almond shaped eyes without a nose but nostrils present. Greys also have slits for mouths and 3-4 fingers including thumbs. Greys have been claimed to be responsible for several abductions of human beings with probing being a staple act committed by these E.T.s (Extra-Terrestrials). Another type of space alien is The Green Alien also called little green men. Green Aliens are described as Short Green Skinned humanoids who look similar to The Greys, except they are Green. The Green Aliens are also known for Human abductions and probing. The next alien is The Martian. The martian seems to be a variant of The Green Alien in most lore but their head shaped can be more concaved than The Green Aliens. Martians show up looking different than however in movies like The War of The Worlds. Another Alien race is the Nordic aliens, these include Space Brothers, Tall Whites and Venusians. Nordic Aliens are known for having tall blonde hair and blue eyes and being very tall. Today, some believe they live underground in the Himalayas. Another type of Alien is the Reptilians, Reptiloids and/or Alpha Draconians. They are tall and scaly. Alpha Draconians specifically are from The Draco Galaxy or The Dragon Galaxy and their Home World is Draconis/ Alpha Draconis or The Dragon World. They within a ton of conspiracy theories including one where they in fact run The World! The Last type of Alien we will discuss are the Andromedans. The Andromedans are said to be a benevolent race of Aliens that live in The Andromeda Galaxy. They are said to have a lifespan of 5000 Earth years. They also have the Power of telepathy. Their purpose is to bring Peace and Love to The Universe and free races enslaved by The evil reptilian race The Alpha Draconians. Andromedans are said to have The Mastery of All Scientific endeavors and are a part of The Galactic Federation.
Exoplanets are planets that orbit a star that is not our Sun and is outside our solar system. Prior to January 1992, it was common dogma that no planet existed outside The Solar System. Now the first time evidence came up about the possibility of Exoplanets was way back in 1917. This however was not confirmed and wouldn't be confirmed for another 75 Years. It was only Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Pluto was still considered a planet at this point in time. Then, on January 9th, 1992; two planets were discovered outside The Solar System orbiting Pulsar PSR 1257+12. Exoplanets were found by spots in their star were light is blocked out, the thing blocking out the light is the Exoplanet itself. Today January 2020, there are a confirmed 4,160 discovered Exoplanets. So much for Exoplanets not existing.
Whether Aliens, UFOS, Exoplanets or a Earth destroying World heading our way, we should keep an open mind about what could be possible in The Universe. That is not to say that we should drop all logic and reason; and science itself, and believe these claims without any evidence or scientific proof. What I am merely saying is that we do not know for sure what is out there, we once didn't believe exo planets existed and believed in a flat Earth. we should not dismiss things, based on prior beliefs, if indisputable evidence comes to form a new way of knowing things. Remember we do not know everything and that should excite us because curiously and discover is what drives our species to do things like create computers, build large structures and go to space itself.
At last, we have arrived at the final planet in The Solar System, Pluto. Pluto is 5,906, 380,000 Kilometers or 3,670,050,000 Miles from The Sun. It is the coldest planet in The Solar System with an average temperature of Negative 240 degrees Celsius or Negative 380 degrees Fahrenheit. Being the farthest planet from The Sun will do that to thee. Pluto is 4.6 Billion Earth years old. A Pluto Year is 248 Earth years, that's a little than double the lifespan of the oldest human in known history (122 Years)! The oldest animal in the world has only lived one and a half Pluto years! Pluto sure does takes its time. Pluto has moons, despite its size. Pluto's moons are Styx, Hydra, Nix, Charon & Kerberos
Pluto is a small planet, the smallest in The Solar System in fact. The entire surface area of Pluto in fact, is smaller than the surface area of the nation of Russia. Pluto has a surface area of about 16,647,940 square kilometers while Russia has a surface area of 17,075,200 square kilometer. Pluto is indeed, a small world. It is so small in fact that it has actually been classified as a Dwarf planet. So is a dwarf planet a planet? No, a Dwarf Planet does not command its part of space and does not maintain a hydrostatically equilibrious shape around its orbit of The Sun. So with that being said, Pluto is not Planet.
The Eighth and Ninth Planet
One strange fact, is that, Pluto sometimes, isn't even the last planet. Sometimes Pluto is the Eighth planet and Neptune is the Ninth. This is because for 20 Earth Years out of 248 Earth Years, Plutos orbits crosses into Neptune's orbit, making it closer to the Sun than Neptune. Now, one may ask, will Pluto crash into Neptune?! Not to worry, this will never happen because Pluto is orbits at a higher plain than Neptune, so even though their orbits clash, their heights do not.
The Roman god Pluto
Pluto inherits its named from The Roman god Pluto, The god of The Underworld and of wealth. The Greek god equivalent is Hades, The Greek god of The Underworld.
Pluto is a small ice world that is the farest from The Sun. It is cold and alone out there. It may seem even hopeless. I mean, its so small and hopeless, that it hasn't even been considered a real planet since before 2006. However, Pluto has a lot more than one might first think. Pluto has five moons while Earth has one. Pluto is very famous here are Earth and is instilled in the minds of many people and it even has people fighting for it to be called a planet again even if it seems hopeless. The same goes for us. The chips may be down for us and things may seem lost and hopeless. Don't let it get to you, for there are those out there who are rooting for you, even if you don't know. There are people who care about you and that should inspire to achieve your goals and life purpose no matter how hopeless and lonely things seem; even if you are 3.7 Billion Miles away.
Neptune is the eighth planet in The Solar System. This icy planet has an average temperature of Negative 214 degrees Celsius or Negative 353 degrees Fahrenheit. This is only naturally when your closest heat (The Sun) is 4.498 Billion Kilometers or 2.781 Million Miles away! No wonder, like Uranus, Neptune is a Ice Giant; well this is due the heavier than Hydrogen and Helium element Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Sulfur. A year on Neptune is 165 Earth Years! To put that into perspective, the oldest person have ever lived in known history, lived to 122 years old. Though Neptune has seen plenty of Neptune Years, due to the fact that Neptune itself is 4.503 Billion Earth Years old. This means that no human has ever lived one single Neptune year in known history! The oldest living animal in The World, The Ocean Quahog Clam can live to 507 Earth years which means, the oldest living thing on Earth, has only lived around 3 Neptune Years! If you have a New Year's resolution on Neptune, you better stick to it, it'll be the chance you have!
The Mathematical Planet
Most planets in The Solar System, were discovered the Old Fashion Way, observation. Not Neptune however. No, for Neptune was discovered Neither the naked eye nor the telescope, Neptune was discovered using Math. Years ago, when Astronomers were mapping the revolutions around The Sun by all the planets, Uranus's Calculation were off. Using Math, they discovered that this was due to another planet disturbing what the revolution was calculated to be. Using the math, they were able to locate the precise location of this planet, and when they looked at that spot, there it was, Neptune; caught red handed.
Facts about Neptune
Neptune has a mass of 1.024 X 10^26 kg and a radius of 15,299 Miles. The Ice of Neptune is slushy. Neptune's color is blue. Neptune has 14 confirmed Moons. The list of these moons are as follows: Triton, Thalassa, Naiad, Hippocamp, Proteus, Despina, Neso, Nereid, Galatea, Halimede, Laomedeia, Psamathe, Sao & Larissa.
The Roman god Neptune
Neptune is named after The Roman god Neptune who is the god of Water and The Sea. Neptune brothers were both Jupiter and Pluto. Neptunes Greek equivalent was Greek god Poseidon who was the god of The Sea, Earthquakes and Horses. An interesting about the one of the moons of the planet Neptune, Triton, is that Triton is the son of Poseidon and is the Greek demigod of The Sea.
Neptune teaches us that we may not always find the answers we are looking for by using the conventional methods. Most planets in The Solar System were discovered using the Traditional method of simple observation, either by the naked eye of through a telescope. When they went to calculate Uranus revolution around the Sun, something was off, and if they would have used the conventional method of observation, it may have taken forever to find Neptune, but since they adapted to the situation and used mathematics, they discovered a new planet. In life we must be willing to adapt in order to accomplish things that seem not to be accomplishable. This may be due to using old method that are out of date or just don't work for this particular problem. We must adjust our methods and eventually, we will find the solution.
Uranus is the seventh planet in The Solar System. It is the first of the planets that was not known by Ancient man and in fact wasn't known until 1781 A.D. In The Ancient World, Traditional Astronomy was done by the naked eye without any equipment. Now don't get me wrong, this is still a good form of Astronomy, before light pollution, Human Eyes could see quite a lot of the night sky. Just not Uranus however. Uranus was discovered via the telescope, a staple in Today's Astronomy. Today's telescope is miles better than telescope in 1781, but 1781 telescopes did discover Uranus. Bam! The seventh planet in The Solar System was canonized.
4.503 Billion Years ago, a whirling collection of dust and gas was pulled in together creating Uranus. Uranus became what is known today as , an Ice Giant. There are two Ice Giants in The Solar System, Uranus and Neptune (The eighth and next planet). An Ice Giant is a planet made of elements such as Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen & Sulfur. Uranus, and Neptune, are still Gas Giants however, but the reason they are classified as Ice Giants is because their Icy core is larger than the gas cloud surrounding the core. This is due to the heavier elements that these planets consist of. Jupiter and Saturn do not become Ice Giants and are Gas Giants because the elements they are made of are both Hydrogen and Helium which are lighter than Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur and Carbon.
Uranus is 1.784 Billion Miles from The Sun. Uranus has a radius of 15,759 Miles and a Mass of 8.681 X 10^25 kilograms. One year on Uranus is 84 Earth years and the length of a day on Uranus is 17 Earth Hours. Uranus has 27 confirmed Moons. These include Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Puck, Caliban, Mab, Prospero, Ferdinand, Juliet, Francisco and more. Uranus has 13 rings around it.
The Sideways Planet
The strangest fact out of all is the fact that Uranus's North-South is it's East-West and it East-West is it's North-South; Uranus is sideways. It believe that this occurred due to an Earth sized planet, colliding with Uranus at some point in time, causing it to tilt at a 97.77 degrees angle. This causes extreme seasons on Uranus where one part of the planet will not see The Sun for 21 years!
The Classical Worlds
Traditional Astronomy in The Ancient World only had six planets, The Classical Worlds. The Classical Worlds were Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Today, Uranus is canonized in The Solar System planet order and unlike Pluto, it's status is here to stay, unless it's destroyed ofcourse.
The Greek god Uranus
Uranus, like a lot of things, is first for something else. Uranus is the first planet named after Greek god and not a Roman god. The Greek god Uranus was the god of the sky. In Greek mythology he was Gaia's (Mother Earth) mate, Uranus is the reason for the first life on Earth. He was the father of The Titans, Cyclopes, Furies, Nymphs and Aphrodite. He is also known as Father Sky. He's Roman god equivalent is Caelus.
One thing that we can learn from Uranus, is that everything is not what it seems. Uranus is literally a sideways planet; and even though it is sideways and out of sync with the rest of the planets; it still continuously revolves around the sun, Uranus year after Uranus year. If we are sideways in life, we too should continue to hence forth towards our purpose in life and continue on no matter how difficult or weird things seems. Uranus can do it and so can you.
Saturn, The Sixth Planet in The Solar System and The Second Gas Giant. Saturn is also The Second Largest planet in The Solar System with a mass of 5.683 X 10^26 Kilograms and a radius of 36,184 Miles or 58233 Kilometers. Saturn is 890.8 Million Miles or 1434.6 Million Kilometers from The Sun and one year on Saturn is 29 Earth Years.
Saturn has three large rings orbiting it. Saturn's rings are made of billions of pieces of rocks, dust and ice. These pieces of Saturn's rings can be the size of a grain of sand on Earth. The rings of Saturn is it's most defining feature by far, like Jupiter's Size or Mars's Red color, The Rings of Saturn are want makes Saturn recognizable amongst the other planets in The Solar System.
The Prince of The Moons
Saturn has a confirmed 62 Moons orbiting around it. That's a few less than Jupiter so perhaps Saturn can be considered The Prince of The Moons. The list of The Major moons of Saturn included Titan, Rhea, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, and Lapetus. Other Moons orbiting Saturn include Atlas, Pan, Pandora, Janus, Telesto, Phoebe, Skoll and Narvi.
The Roman god Saturn
Saturn inherits its name from The Roman god of Generation, Dissolution, Plenty, Wealth, Agriculture, periodic renewal & liberation. The naming behind Saturn may be due to The Rings around Saturn which can be seen as a fashion statement of the wealthy. The Greek god equivalent is Cronus, The King of Titans and The Father of Zeus; The King of The gods. Cronus is The god of Time.
Saturn teaching us that having many rings brings you notoriety. Meaning that achieving things in life can bring you legendary status and have you engraved in the history books. Having rings or other articles of achievement shows as proof of one's conquering of goals in life and Saturn having large rings gives it a unique status in The Solar System.
The asteroid belt
In the middle of The Rock Worlds and The Gas Giants is ring of rocks known as The Asteroid belt. If you want to travel from Mars to Jupiter you first must pass through this vast array of rocks that spans 478,713,186 Kilometers or 297,458,583 Miles and has 1.9 Million Asteroids. Don't worry however, for the average distance between each Asteroid is 600,000 Miles or 965,606 Kilometers.
The Asteroid belt was built by Planetesimals which are very small protoplanets. These Planetesimals never formed into full-sized planet due to gravitational perturbations from Jupiter. This prevented the Planetesimals from growing into larger planets and perhaps some of the planetesimals later became Jupiter's moons. Imagine The Solar System instead of having 9 planets, having over a million planets, the way The Solar System works would look alot different.
The Asteroids themselves are made up of rocks and metal and are not spherical shaped like the planets are. The shapes of the asteroids are random and comes in a variety of weird shapes. One interesting fact is the theory that The Dinosaurs went extinct due to an Asteroid colliding with The Earth. A misplaced revenge for not becoming full planets in a way.
It's hard to imagine The Solar System having Millions of Worlds but one lesson that can be learned from The Asteroids is the fact that many things in life have potential and sometimes that potential isn't met to its fullest due to many factors. Many things could have happened but didn't for one reason or another. Without Jupiter we perhaps wouldn't have had an asteroid belt and many the dinosaurs wouldn't have gone extinct. With dinosaurs still on the Earth humans may have gone extinct by now. So it seems that things happen for a reason even in the natural world. Without The Asteroid belt, we may have well never existed.
Jupiter, The Biggest planet in The Solar System! With a 1.898 X 10^27 kg, Jupiter can fit 1300 Earths inside it's circumference. It's radius is 43,441 Miles or 69,912 Kilometers and a surface area of 23.71 Billion Miles squared. Jupiter is The fifth planet in The Solar System with an asthoning distance of 483.8 Million Miles or 7786006272 Kilometers from The Sun. Jupiter is 4.503 Billion Years Old and a Year of Jupiter is 12 Earth Years.
Jupiter is the first Gas Giant in The Solar System, other gas giants include Saturn, Neptune and Uranus. A Gas Giant is planet not made of solid rock or other solid material but made of a massive amount of gases like Hydrogen and Helium. Like Brown Dwarfs, Gas Giants are sometimes referred to as Failed Stars. The reason being is because Gas Giants contain elements that are commonly found in Stars like Hydrogen and Helium and Stars are too made of gas, well plasma more specifically. Though whether or not a gas giant being factually a failed star or not is still not completely known. Though Gas giant are not primarily made of sold rock, they usually do have a solid rock core underneath all that gas. Also Astronomers believe that Gas Giants start off as tiny solid icy planets that collect gas overtime and eventually became enormous balls of gas.
Jupiter is World of Chaos. Storms are occurring on Jupiter constantly and relentlessly. The Great Red Spot on Jupiter is in fact the largest storm in The Solar System. It is believed that THe Great Red Spot has existed on Jupiter since before 1665 A.D. That's a really big & long storm!
Jupiter has 79 knowns Moons orbiting it as of Today. The names of The Moons are as follows; Europa, Thebe, Metis, Ersa, Callisto, Io, Leda, Adrastea, Amalthea, Ganymede, Themisto, Himalia, Pandia, Dia, Lysithea, Elara, Euporie, S/2003 J 12, Carpo, Valetudo, Eupheme, S/2003 J 18, S/2010 J2, Thelxinoe, Euanthe, Helike, Orthosie, S/2017 J 7, S/2016 J 1, S/2017 J 3, Lacoste, S/2003 J 16, Praxidike, Harpalyke, Mneme, Hermippe, Thyone, S/2017 J 9, Ananke, Herse, Aitne, S/2017 J 6, S/2017 J1, Kale, Taygete, S/2003 J 19, Chaldene, Philophrosyne, S/2003 J 10, S/2003 J 23, Erinome, Aoede, Kallichore, S/2017 J 5, S/2017 J 8, Kalyke, Carme, Callirhoe, Eurydome, S/2017 J 2, Pasithee, S/2010 J 1, Kore, Cyliene, S/2011 J2, Eukelade, S/2017 J 1, S/2003 J 4, Pasiphae, Hegemone, Arche, Isonoe, S/2003 J 9, Eirene, Sinope, Sponde, Autonoe, S/2003 J 2, & Megaclite. With all these moons surrounding it, Jupiter can definitely be called the moon planet.
The Roman god Jupiter
Jupiter receives its name from The Roman god of Jupiter, who is known as The King of The gods, the god of The Sky & the god of Thunder. The Greek god equivalent is Zeus. Jupiter probably was named after The King of the gods due to its massive size compared to the other planets in The Solar System.
Jupiters massive size cannot be recognized by any humans with good eyesight. It's size has given it king status to the Ancients and Giant status to the contemporaries. In mythology Jupiter was known as The King of the gods and in Science it can be called The King of The Worlds.
Mars, the Red Planet, home to the Martians. Mars has been known of since as long as people have been doing Astrology or Astronomy. Mars is the fourth planet in The Solar System and was born 4.603 Billion years ago. For many years, it has been debated whether or not Mars was once a habitable planet and whether or not it may become one in the future. As of now however, it is not able to support any life on Earth without great assistance from technology.
Mars has an average temperature of -63 degrees Celsius or -81 degrees Fahrenheit way to cold for a human to live on, the livable temperature are liveable however, the high temps are 20 degrees Celsius and 68 degrees Fahrenheit. This would seem like a nice place to live, except for the fact the low temperature is -153 degrees Celsius or -243 degrees Fahrenheit. Not very habitable for humans after all.
One year of Mars is 687 Earth Days and a Day on Mars is One Earth Day and 37 Earth Minutes. Mars is 141.6 Million Miles from The Sun. While Earth's gravity rate is 9.8 m/s ^2 Mars's gravity rate is 3.711 m/s^2
World of War
Mars inherits its name from The Roman god Mars. Mars is the god of War. Mars was most likely given its name due to its Red appearance, red symbolizing the color of blood in War. With it's desert-like land, it is easy to fall under the belief that Mars might have been a planet full of life, but some great war destroyed it all. This is complete speculation if not outright fantasy, but nonetheless Mars does inspire many stories of its past, present and future.
We see it every night, every night it is biggest and brightest object in our sky, we've been on it and have studied it as long as man has looked up to the heavens, ladies and gentlemen; The Moon.
The beginning of The Moon
The Moon is 4.53 Billion Years old. The Moon is thought to come into being when a Mars-sized rock named Theia, collided with The Earth and broke into pieces into space which came together due to gravity forming the Earth revolving Moon. Today, The Moon is the only permanent Satellite to The Earth, revolving not around The Sun, but The Earth.
The Phases of The Moon
The Moon has 8 phases around The Earth. The phases of the Moon is the view we are able to see the Moon's surface due to the luminosity reflecting from the Sun. Depending on The revolution of The Moon around the Earth, determines how much of The Moon we see. The first of phases in The Moon's cycle is The New Moon, at this phase The Moon is completely black. The second phase of The Lunar cycle is The waxing crescent, The phases of the moon looks like a reverse flag of Turkey, minus the star. The third phase of The Lunar cycle is The First Quarter. At this phase you would see the right half of the moon. The fourth phase of the cycle is The Waxing Gibbous, At this phase you can see most of the moon excluding the very far left side of the moon. The fifth phase of The Lunar Cycle is The Full Moon. This is the phase where you see the whole moon, all of it is lit up for all to see. The sixth cycle of the moon is The Waning Gibbous. Like The Waxing Gibbous you will see most of the Moon except this time it will be the far right side that will be dark. The Seventh phase of The Lunar Cycle of The Third Quarter. In The third quarter you will see the left half of the Moon. The Eighth and final phase of The Lunar cycle is The Waning crescent. In the final cycle you will see the Turkey flag minus the star. The Lunar phases last about a month, hence the name Month which is named after The Moon.
The effects of The Moon
The Moon doesn't only just light up The Earth's night sky; it also causes the tides of the oceans on Earth. The gravity from The Moon pulls the waters of the Earth, forming Tidal Waves which helps spread water across The Earth. Without this, civilization and even life as we know it, would be different if even non-existent.
The Moon plays an important role in our lives here on Earth. The moon lights up our night sky and controls the tidal waves on our planet. The Moon is a necessarily key to the life of us humans and all other species on Earth. The Moon like The Sun plays a crucial role in the structure of life on Earth, The Moon in a few ways, is our friend.
Earth, The Aloha World. The planet with something we seem to be find anywhere else in The Universe, Life. No where else in The Universe have people been able to definitely say, there is complex life on that planet. We have found planet that may contain life, but we do not know for sure. For now, Earth is the planet of Life.
The Start of Earth
The Earth is 4.543 Billion Years old. Just like all Rock Worlds, Earth was formed when Gas and Dust came together due to the gravity and formed a spherical rock that revolved around The Sun. In the beginning Earth was a hot molten rock that could not support life like it does today, The Primeval Earth. Eventually however, The Earth would cool down to temperatures that are more recognizable in Today's World.
Life on Earth
When Earth cooled down enough, life began to formed. At first simple single-celled life forms like Amebas were born. Eventually though, more complex life forms were born, like Dinosaurs and Fish and Birds and eventually Humans. Today on Earth, there are about 8.7 million species of living things on Earth.
The mass of The Earth is 5.972 X 10^24 Kilograms. The Earth is 92.96 Million miles from The Sun. 70 perfect of the Earth's surface is covered in Water.
The Circle of Life on Earth is much like The Circle of Life in The Universe. Things die and things are born in its place. It's is thought that, how we live here reflects a lot of what goes on out there. We are all a part of The Universe, so this is totally normal, we are what we are a product of and as star are born, live and die, we all too do the same on Earth.
'Astronomy' page explores aspects of Astronomy, Philosophy, Spacelore and other topics about The Universe!